Document



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
 
FORM 8-K
 
CURRENT REPORT
Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported) November 14, 2019
 
YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
DELAWARE
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation)
 
001-33133
 
04-3158289
(Commission File Number)
 
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
 
19 Presidential Way, Woburn, Massachusetts
 
01801
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
(617) 583-1700
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code) 
 
(Former Name or Former Address, if Changed Since Last Report)
 
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions ( see General Instruction A.2. below):
 
o Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
 
o Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)
 
o Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))
 
o Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c)).
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock
YTEN
The Nasdaq Capital Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).
Emerging growth company  o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  o





Item 1.01. Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement
Public Offering
On November 15, 2019, Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), entered into an Underwriting Agreement (the “Underwriting Agreement”) with Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. (the “Underwriter”), pursuant to which the Company sold, in a registered public offering by the Company (the “Public Offering”), (a) 12,480,000 Class A Units (the “Class A Units”), with each Class A Unit consisting of one share of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), a warrant to purchase one share of Common Stock, exercisable at a price of $0.20 for a two and one-half year period (a “Series A Warrant”), and a warrant to purchase one share of Common Stock, exercisable at a price of $0.20 for a seven and one-half year period (a “Series B Warrant” and, collectively with the Series A Warrants, the “Warrants”) with each Class A Unit to be offered to the public at an offering price of $0.20 per Class A Unit; and (b) 2,504 Class B Units (the “Class B Units”, and together with the Class A Units, the “Units”), with each Class B Unit consisting of one share of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Series A Preferred Stock”), a Series A Warrant to purchase 5,000 shares of Common Stock, and a Series B Warrant to purchase 5,000 shares of Common Stock, with each Class B Unit to be offered to the public at an offering price of $1,000 per Class B Unit. The initial conversion price of the Series A Preferred Stock is $0.20 per share.
In addition, pursuant to the Underwriting Agreement, the Company granted the Underwriter a 45-day option (the “Overallotment Option”) to purchase up to 15% of the shares of Common Stock (including shares underlying the Series A Preferred Stock) and/or additional Warrants to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price per share of Common Stock and per Warrant, less the underwriting discounts and commissions. The Overallotment Option was exercised in full. Pursuant to the exercise of the Overallotment Option, an additional 3,750,000 shares of Common Stock, 3,750,000 Series A Warrants and 3,750,000 Series B Warrants were issued at the closing of the Public Offering, which took place on November 19, 2019. The Units were not certificated, and the shares of Common Stock, Series A Preferred Stock and Warrants comprising such Units are immediately separable and were issued separately in the Public Offering. The Units were offered by the Company pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-233683), as amended, as initially filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on September 9, 2019, as amended on October 11, 2019, November 8, 2019 and November 12, 2019, and declared effective by the Commission on November 14, 2019 (the “Registration Statement”).
Following the completion of the Public Offering as of November 19, 2019, the Company had outstanding 28,797,582 shares of Common Stock.
Subject to certain exceptions, if, after the four-year anniversary of the issuance of the Series B Warrants, (i) the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for each of 20 consecutive trading days, which period commences on the closing date, exceeds 300% of the exercise price (subject to adjustments for stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and similar transactions), (ii) the average daily trading volume for such period exceeds $175,000 per trading day and (iii) the Series B Warrant holders in question are not in possession of any information that constitutes or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Company, then the Company may call for cancellation of all or any portion of the Series B Warrants then outstanding.
Private Placement
On November 14, 2019, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with Jack W. Schuler, the Company’s largest shareholder, and entities related to him (together, the “Investors”). Pursuant to the terms of the Securities Purchase Agreement, the Company sold to the Investors an aggregate of 5,750 unregistered units, with each unit consisting of one share of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share (“Series B Preferred Stock”), Series A Warrants to purchase 5,000 shares of Common Stock, exercisable at a price of $0.20, and Series B Warrants to purchase 5,000 shares of Common Stock, exercisable at a price of $0.20, at a price of $1,000 per unit in a private placement (the “Private Placement”), for gross proceeds of approximately $5.4 million before transaction costs. Prior to the closing of the Private Placement, Jack W. Schuler beneficially owned approximately 40% of the issued and outstanding shares of Common Stock.
The Securities Purchase Agreement contains customary representations, warranties and covenants by the Company, customary indemnification obligations of the Company and the Investors, including for liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and other obligations of the parties. The representations, warranties and covenants contained in the Securities Purchase Agreement were made only for purposes of such agreement and as of specific dates, were solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement and may be subject to limitations agreed upon by the contracting parties.





The securities issued in the Private Placement were offered in reliance upon exemptions from registration under Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act and Regulation D promulgated thereunder and corresponding provisions of state securities laws. Each of the Investors is an “accredited investor” as defined in Rule 501(a) under the Securities Act.
Item 3.02. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities.
The disclosure set forth in Item 1.01 above under “Private Placement” is hereby incorporated into this Item 3.02 by reference.
Item 5.03   Amendments to Articles of Incorporation; Change in Fiscal Year.
Series A Preferred Stock
In connection with the Public Offering, on November 18, 2019, the Company filed a Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of the Series A Preferred Stock (the “Series A Certificate of Designation”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. The Series A Certificate of Designation provides for the issuance of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock. With certain exceptions, the shares of Series A Preferred Stock rank on par with the shares of the Common Stock, in each case, as to dividend rights and distributions of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company.
With certain exceptions, as described in the Series A Certificate of Designation, the shares of Series A Preferred Stock have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Series A Preferred Stock remain outstanding, the Series A Certificate of Designation provides that the Company shall not, without the affirmative vote of holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock, (a) alter or change adversely the powers, preferences or rights given to the Series A Preferred Stock or alter or amend the Series A Certificate of Designation, (b) increase the number of authorized shares of Series A Preferred Stock, or (c) effect a stock split or reverse stock split of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock or any like event.
Each share of Series A Preferred Stock is convertible at any time at the holder’s option into a number of shares of Common Stock equal to $1,000.00 per share divided by the Conversion Price. The “Conversion Price” is initially $0.20, subject to adjustment for reverse and forward stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations and other similar transactions as specified in the Series A Certificate of Designation. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Series A Certificate of Designation further provides that the Company shall not effect any conversion of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock, with certain exceptions, to the extent that, after giving effect to an attempted conversion, the holder of shares of Series A Preferred Stock (together with such holder’s affiliates and any persons acting as a group together with such holder or any of such holder’s affiliates) would beneficially own a number of shares of Common Stock in excess of 4.99% of the shares of Common Stock then outstanding. At the holder’s option, upon notice to the Company, the holder may increase or decrease this beneficial ownership limitation not to exceed 9.99% of the shares of Common Stock then outstanding, with any such increase becoming effective upon 61 days’ prior notice to the Company.
Additionally, subject to certain exceptions and limitations, the Company will have the right to cause each holder of the Series A Preferred Stock to convert all or part of such holder’s Series A Preferred Stock in the event that (i) the volume weighted average price of the Company’s common stock for each of 30 consecutive trading days exceeds 300% of the conversion price of the preferred stock issued in this offering (subject to adjustment for stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and similar transactions), (ii) the average daily trading volume for such measurement period exceeds $175,000 per trading day and (iii) the holder is not in possession of any information that constitutes or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Company.
Series B Preferred Stock
In connection with the Private Placement, on November 18, 2019, the Company filed a Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of the Series B Preferred Stock (the “Series B Certificate of Designation”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. The Series B Certificate of Designation provides for the issuance of the shares of Series B Preferred Stock.
The Series B Preferred Stock has various rights that are superior to other securities issued by the Company. Specifically, the Series B Preferred Stock is redeemable for cash at the election of the holders if an amendment to the Company’s Amended and Revised Certificate of Incorporation to implement an increase in the number of authorized shares of Common Stock (the “Charter Amendment”) has not occurred within twelve months of issuance of the Series B Preferred Stock. Further, the Series B Preferred Stock has a cumulative quarterly dividend right, payable starting March 31, 2020, pursuant to which the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive a dividend equal initially to (i) 2% of the stated value of the Series B Preferred Stock plus (ii) all accrued and unpaid dividends, which dividends are payable in additional shares of Series B





Preferred Stock. The dividend rate will increase by 2% on each quarterly dividend payment date for as long as the Series B Preferred Stock remains outstanding. In the event of a liquidation of the company, holders of the Series B Preferred Stock would be paid the stated value of the Series B Preferred Stock plus the amount of the accrued dividends to the point of liquidation prior to any payment to holders of junior securities, including the common stock. The holders of the Series B Preferred Stock will also have the right to approve specified corporate transactions, including the issuance of any securities that would be senior to the Series B Preferred Stock, material changes in the Company’s business, material acquisitions of assets, appointments of new executive officers, liquidations, repurchases of shares, and other matters as set forth in the Series B Certificate of Designation.
Upon the approval of the Charter Amendment, each share of Series B Preferred Stock shall automatically convert into that number of shares of Common Stock determined by dividing the value of such share of Series B Preferred Stock by a conversion price of $0.20.
Subject to certain exceptions and limitations, the Company will have the right to cause each holder of the Series B Preferred Stock to convert all or part of such holder’s Series B Preferred Stock in the event that (i) the volume weighted average price of the Company’s common stock for each of 30 consecutive trading days exceeds 300% of the conversion price of the Series B Preferred Stock (subject to adjustment for stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and similar transactions), (ii) the average daily trading volume for such measurement period exceeds $175,000 per trading day and (iii) the holder is not in possession of any information that constitutes or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Company.
The foregoing summaries of the Underwriting Agreement, Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock, Warrants, and Securities Purchase Agreement do not purport to be complete and are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by, such documents attached as Exhibits 1.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 and 10.1, respectively, to this Current Report on Form 8-K, which are incorporated herein by reference.
Item 8.01.  Other Events.
On November 19, 2019, the Company issued a press release announcing that it had closed the Public Offering and the Private Placement. A copy of the press release is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K and is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.
(d)
Exhibits.
 
 
Exhibit No.
Description
 
 
Underwriting Agreement, dated as of November 15, 2019, by and between Yield10 Bioscience, Inc. and Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. as representative of the several underwriters, if any, named on Schedule I thereto.
 
 
 
 
Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock.
 
 
 
 
Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations with respect to the Series B Preferred Stock.
 
 
 
 
Form of Common Stock Purchase Warrant.
 
 
 
 
Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of November 14, 2019, by and between Yield10 Bioscience, Inc. and the Investors listed on Schedule I thereto.
 
 
 
 
Press release dated November 19, 2019.





SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
 
 
 
Date: November 19, 2019
By:
/s/ Oliver Peoples
 
 
Oliver Peoples
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer



Exhibit
Exhibit 1.1

12,480,000 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK,
2,504 SHARES OF SERIES A CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK (CONVERTIBLE INTO 12,520,000 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK),
WARRANTS EXERCISABLE INTO 50,000,000 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK
OF
YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
UNDERWRITING AGREEMENT

November 15, 2019
Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.
As the Representative of the
Several underwriters, if any, named in Schedule I hereto
4400 Biscayne Boulevard, 14th Floor
Miami, Florida 33137

Ladies and Gentlemen:

The undersigned, Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of Delaware (collectively with its subsidiaries and affiliates, including, without limitation, all entities disclosed or described in the Registration Statement as being subsidiaries or affiliates of Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., the “Company”), hereby confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with the several underwriters (such underwriters, including the Representative (as defined below), the “Underwriters” and each an “Underwriter”) named in Schedule I hereto for which Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. is acting as representative to the several Underwriters (the “Representative” and if there are no Underwriters other than the Representative, references to multiple Underwriters shall be disregarded and the term Representative as used herein shall have the same meaning as Underwriter) on the terms and conditions set forth herein.

It is understood that the several Underwriters are to make a public offering of the Public Securities as soon as the Representative deems it advisable to do so. The Public Securities are to be initially offered to the public at the public offering price set forth in the Prospectus. The Representative may from time to time thereafter change the public offering price and other selling terms.
It is further understood that you will act as the Representative for the Underwriters in the offering and sale of the Closing Securities and, if any, the Option Securities in accordance with this Agreement.











ARTICLE I.
DEFINITIONS
1.1    Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Agreement, (a) capitalized terms that are not otherwise defined herein have the meanings given to such terms in the Certificate of Designation (as defined herein) and (b) the following terms have the meanings set forth in this Section 1.1:
Action” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(k).
Affiliate” means with respect to any Person, any other Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with such Person as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.
Amendment” means the amendment to the Company’s articles of incorporation that either effects a reverse stock split or increases the number of authorized shares of Common Stock in either case such that all of the Warrants may be exercised in full by the holders of the Warrants.
Authorized Share Increase Date” means, subject to Authorized Share Approval, the date on which the Amendment is filed and accepted with the State of Delaware.
Authorized Share Approval” means approval of the Amendment by the shareholders of the Company.
Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company.
Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.
Certificate of Designation” means the Certificate of Designation to be filed prior to the Closing by the Company with the Secretary of State of Delaware in the form of Exhibit F attached hereto.
Closing” means the closing of the purchase and sale of the Closing Securities pursuant to Section 2.1.
Closing Date” means the hour and the date on the Trading Day on which all conditions precedent to (i) the Underwriters’ obligations to pay the Closing Purchase Price and (ii) the Company’s obligations to deliver the Closing Securities, in each case, have been satisfied or waived, but in no event later than 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the second (2nd) Trading Day following the date hereof or at such earlier time as shall be agreed upon by the Representative and the Company.
Closing Preferred Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(ii).






Closing Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.
Closing Securities” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(iii).
Closing Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(i).
Closing Warrants” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(iii).
Combined Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).
Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.01 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.
Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.
Company Auditor” means RSM US LLP, with offices located at 80 City Square, Boston, Massachusetts 02129.
Company Counsel” means Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C, with offices located at One Financial Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111.
Conversion Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in the Certificate of Designation.
Conversion Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in the Certificate of Designation.
Effective Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(f).
EGS” means Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, with offices located at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10105.
Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Execution Date” shall mean the date on which the parties execute and enter into this Agreement.







Exempt Issuance” means the issuance of (a) shares of Common Stock, options or other equity-based awards to employees, officers or directors of the Company pursuant to any stock or option plan duly adopted for such purpose by a majority of the non-employee members of the Board of Directors or a majority of the members of a committee of non-employee directors established for such purpose, (b) shares of Common Stock to employees participating in the Company’s existing 401(k) plan as matching contributions pursuant to such plan, (c) securities upon the exercise or exchange of or conversion of any Securities issued hereunder and/or other securities exercisable or exchangeable for or convertible into shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding on the date of this Agreement, provided that such securities have not been amended since the date of this Agreement to increase the number of such securities or to decrease the exercise price, exchange price or conversion price of such securities or to amend the term of such securities, (d) securities issued pursuant to acquisitions or strategic transactions approved by a majority of the disinterested directors of the Company, provided that such securities are issued as “restricted securities” (as defined in Rule 144) and carry no registration rights that require or permit the filing of any registration statement in connection therewith within ninety (90) days following the Closing Date, and provided that any such issuance shall only be to a Person (or to the equity holders of a Person) which is, itself or through its subsidiaries, an operating company or an owner of an asset in a business synergistic with the business of the Company and shall provide to the Company additional benefits in addition to the investment of funds, but shall not include a transaction in which the Company is issuing securities primarily for the purpose of raising capital or to an entity whose primary business is investing in securities, and (e) up to $5,750,000 of Series B Preferred Stock and warrants, with the same Conversion Price and exercise prices of the Preferred Stock and Warrants to be issued in this Offering, concurrently with the Closing of this Offering.
FCPA” means the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.
FINRA” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.
GAAP” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(i).
Indebtedness” means (a) any liabilities for borrowed money or amounts owed in excess of $50,000 (other than trade accounts payable incurred in the ordinary course of business), (b) all guaranties, endorsements and other contingent obligations in respect of indebtedness of others, whether or not the same are or should be reflected in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet (or the notes thereto), except guaranties by endorsement of negotiable instruments for deposit or collection or similar transactions in the ordinary course of business; and (c) the present value of any lease payments in excess of $50,000 due under leases required to be capitalized in accordance with GAAP.
Liens” means a lien, charge, pledge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction.
Lock-Up Agreements” means the lock-up agreements that are delivered on the date hereof by each of the Company’s officers and directors and each holder of Common Stock and Common Stock Equivalents holding, on a fully diluted basis, more than 5% of the Company’s issued and outstanding Common Stock, in the form of Exhibit H attached hereto.






Material Adverse Effect” means (i) a material adverse effect on the legality, validity or enforceability of any Transaction Document, (ii) a material adverse effect on the results of operations, assets, business, prospects or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under any Transaction Document.
Offering” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(c).
Option Closing Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(c).
Option Closing Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.
Option Securities” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a)(ii).
Option Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a)(i).
Option Warrants” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a).
Over-Allotment Option” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2.
Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.
Preferred Stock” means up to 2,504 shares of the Company’s Series A Convertible Preferred Stock issued or issuable pursuant to Section 2.1(a)(ii) and having the rights, preferences and privileges set forth in the Certificate of Designation.
Preferred Stock Agency Agreement” means the addendum to the Company’s Transfer Agency and Registrar Services Agreement with the Transfer Agent, pursuant to which the Transfer Agent agrees to act as transfer agent and conversion agent for the Preferred Stock, in the form of Exhibit G attached hereto.
Preliminary Prospectus” means, if any, any preliminary prospectus relating to the Securities included in the Registration Statement or filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b).
Proceeding” means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an informal investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened.
Prospectus” means the final prospectus filed for the Registration Statement.






Prospectus Supplement” means, if any, any supplement to the Prospectus complying with Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act that is filed with the Commission.
Public Securities” means, collectively, the Closing Securities and, if any, the Option Securities.
Registration Statement” means, collectively, the various parts of the registration statement prepared by the Company on Form S-1 (File No. 333-233683) with respect to the Securities, each as amended as of the date hereof, including the Prospectus and Prospectus Supplement, if any, the Preliminary Prospectus, if any, and all exhibits filed with or incorporated by reference into such registration statement and includes the Rule 462(b) Registration Statement.
Required Approvals” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(e).
Required Minimum” means, as of any date, the maximum aggregate number of shares of Common Stock then issued or potentially issuable in the future pursuant to the Transaction Documents, including any Underlying Shares issuable upon exercise in full of all Warrants or conversion in full of all shares of Preferred Stock, ignoring any conversion or exercise limits set forth therein.
Rule 424” means Rule 424 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended or interpreted from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same purpose and effect as such Rule.
Rule 462(b) Registration Statement” means the registration statement prepared by the Company as a post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, which was filed with the Commission on or prior to the date hereof and became automatically effective pursuant to Rule 462(b) promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act.
SEC Reports” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(i).
Securities” means the Closing Securities, the Option Securities and the Underlying Shares.
Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Series B Preferred Stock” means up to 5,750 shares of the Company’s Series B Convertible Preferred Stock issued or issuable pursuant to private placement.
Series A Warrants” means the Common Stock purchase warrants delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(iii) and Section 2.3, which Warrants shall be exercisable on the Authorized Share Increase Date and have a term equal to two and one half years from the Closing Date, in the form of Exhibit D-1 attached hereto.
Series B Warrants” means the Common Stock purchase warrants delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(iv) and Section 2.3, which Warrants shall






be exercisable on the Authorized Share Increase Date and have a term equal to seven and one half years from the Closing Date, in the form of Exhibit D-2 attached hereto.
Share Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).
Shares” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(i) and Section 2.2(a).
Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of the Company and shall, where applicable, also include any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company formed or acquired after the date hereof.
Trading Day” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for trading.
Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).
Transaction Documents” means this Agreement, the Warrants, the Warrant Agency Agreement, the Certificate of Designation, the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement, the Lock-Up Agreements, and any other documents or agreements executed in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder.
Transfer Agent” means American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, with offices located at 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.
Underlying Shares” means, collectively, the Shares, the Conversion Shares and the Warrant Shares.
Warrant Agency Agreement” means the warrant agency agreement dated on or about the date hereof, between the Company and American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC in the form of Exhibit E attached hereto.
Warrant Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).
Warrant Shares” means the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.
Warrants” means, collectively, the Series A Warrants and the Series B Warrants.






ARTICLE II
PURCHASE AND SALE
2.1    Closing.
(a)    Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, the Company agrees to sell in the aggregate 12,480,000 shares of Common Stock, 2,504 shares of Preferred Stock, and 50,000,000 Warrants, and each Underwriter agrees to purchase, severally and not jointly, at the Closing, the following securities of the Company:
(i)    the number of shares of Common Stock (the “Closing Shares”) set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof;
(ii)    the number of shares of Preferred Stock (the “Closing Preferred Shares”) set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof; and
(iii)    Series A Warrants to purchase up to 100% of the sum of the number of Closing Shares plus the Conversion Shares underlying the Closing Preferred Shares set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof, which Warrants shall have an exercise price of $0.20, subject to adjustment as provided therein; and
(iv)    Series B Warrants to purchase up to 100% of the sum of the number of Closing Shares plus the number of Conversion Shares underlying the Closing Preferred Shares set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof (together with the Series A Warrants, the “Closing Warrants” and, collectively with the Closing Shares and the Closing Preferred Shares, the “Closing Securities”), which Warrants shall have an exercise price of $0.20, subject to adjustment as provided therein.
(b)    The aggregate purchase price for the Closing Securities shall equal the amount set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereto (the “Closing Purchase Price”). The combined purchase price for one Share, a Series A Warrant to purchase one Warrant Share, and a Series B Warrant shall be $0.184 (the “Combined Purchase Price”) which shall be allocated as $0.1656 per Share (the “Share Purchase Price”), $0.0092 per Series A Warrant (the “Series A Warrant Purchase Price”), and $0.0092 per Series B Warrant (the “Series B Warrant Purchase Price”). The combined purchase price for one Closing Preferred Share, Series A Warrants to purchase 5,000 Warrant Shares, and Series B Warrants to purchase 5,000 Warrant Shares and shall be $920.00 (the “Combined Preferred Purchase Price”) which shall be allocated as $828.00 per Preferred Share, $0.0092 per Series A Warrant, and $0.0092 per Series B Warrant. Notwithstanding the foregoing, as to 2,250,000 Shares, Series A Warrants to purchase 2,250,000 Shares, and Series B Warrants to purchase 2,250,000 Shares sold to Company investors set forth on Schedule I hereto, the “Combined Purchase Price” shall be $0.194; and
(c)     On the Closing Date, each Underwriter shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Company, via wire transfer, immediately available funds equal to such Underwriter’s Closing Purchase Price and the Company shall deliver to, or as directed by, such Underwriter its respective Closing Securities and the Company shall deliver the other items required






pursuant to Section 2.3 deliverable at the Closing. Upon satisfaction of the covenants and conditions set forth in Sections 2.3 and 2.4, the Closing shall occur at the offices of EGS or such other location as the Company and Representative shall mutually agree. The Public Securities are to be offered initially to the public at the offering price set forth on the cover page of the Prospectus (the “Offering”).
(d)    The Company acknowledges and agrees that, with respect to any Notice(s) of Conversion (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) delivered by a Holder (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) on or prior to 12:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date, which Notice(s) of Conversion may be delivered at any time after the time of execution of this Agreement, the Company shall deliver the Conversion Shares (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) subject to such notice(s) to the Holder by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date and the Closing Date shall be the Share Delivery Date (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) under the Certificate of Designation. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Holders are third-party beneficiaries of this covenant of the Company.
2.2    Over-Allotment Option.
(a)    For the purposes of covering any over-allotments in connection with the distribution and sale of the Closing Securities, the Representative is hereby granted an option (the “Over-Allotment Option”) to purchase, in the aggregate, up to 3,750,000 shares of Common Stock (the “Option Shares”), Series A Warrants to purchase up to 3,750,000 shares of Common Stock (the “Series A Option Warrants”), and Series B Warrants to purchase up to 3,750,000 shares of Common Stock (the “Series B Option Warrants, the Series A Option Warrants and the Series B Option Warrants, together the “Option Warrants” and, collectively with the Option Shares, the “Option Securities”) which may be purchased in any combination of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants at the Share Purchase Price and/or the Series A Warrant Purchase Price and/or the Series B Warrant Purchase Price, respectively.
(b)    In connection with an exercise of the Over-Allotment Option, (a) the purchase price to be paid for the Option Shares is equal to the product of the Share Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Option Shares to be purchased and (b) the purchase price to be paid for the Option Warrants is equal to the product of the Warrant Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Series A Option Warrants and Series B Option Warrants (the aggregate purchase price to be paid on an Option Closing Date, the “Option Closing Purchase Price”).
(c)    The Over-Allotment Option granted pursuant to this Section 2.2 may be exercised by the Representative as to all (at any time) or any part (from time to time) of the Option Securities within 45 days after the Execution Date. An Underwriter will not be under any obligation to purchase any Option Securities prior to the exercise of the Over-Allotment Option by the Representative. The Over-Allotment Option granted hereby may be exercised by the giving of oral notice to the Company from the Representative, which must be confirmed in writing by overnight mail or facsimile or other electronic transmission setting forth the number of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants to be purchased and the date and time for delivery of and payment for the Option Securities (each, an “Option Closing Date”), which will not be later than two (2) full Business Days after the date of the notice or such






other time as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative, at the offices of EGS or at such other place (including remotely by facsimile or other electronic transmission) as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative. If such delivery and payment for the Option Securities does not occur on the Closing Date, each Option Closing Date will be as set forth in the notice. Upon exercise of the Over-Allotment Option, the Company will become obligated to convey to the Underwriters, and, subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, the Underwriters will become obligated to purchase, the number of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants specified in such notice. The Representative may cancel the Over-Allotment Option at any time prior to the expiration of the Over-Allotment Option by written notice to the Company.
2.3    Deliveries. The Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to each Underwriter (if applicable) the following:
(i)    At the Closing Date, the Closing Shares and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Shares, which shares shall be delivered via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;
(ii)    At the Closing Date, the Closing Preferred Shares shall be delivered via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;
(iii)    At the Closing Date, the Closing Warrants and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Warrants via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;
(iv)    At the Closing Date, the Warrant Agency Agreement duly executed by the parties thereto;
(v)    At the Closing Date, the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement duly executed by the parties thereto;
(vi)    At the Closing Date, evidence of the filing and acceptance of the Certificate of Designation from the Secretary of State of Delaware;
(vii)    At the Closing Date, a legal opinion of Company Counsel addressed to the Underwriters, including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter, substantially in the form of Exhibit A attached hereto and as to the Closing Date and as to each Option Closing Date, if any, a bring-down opinion from Company Counsel in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Representative, including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative;
(viii)    Contemporaneously herewith, a cold comfort letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance satisfactory in all respects to the Representative from the Company Auditor dated as of the date of this Agreement, and a bring-down letter dated as of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any;






(ix)    On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Officer’s Certificate, substantially in the form required by Exhibit B attached hereto;
(x)    On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Secretary’s Certificate, substantially in the form required by Exhibit C attached hereto; and
(xi)    Contemporaneously herewith, the duly executed and delivered Lock-Up Agreements.
2.4    Closing Conditions. The respective obligations of each Underwriter hereunder in connection with the Closing and each Option Closing Date are subject to the following conditions being met:
(i)    the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the date in question (other than representations and warranties of the Company already qualified by materiality, which shall be true and correct in all respects) of the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein (unless as of a specific date therein);
(ii)    all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Company required to be performed at or prior to the date in question shall have been performed in all material respects;
(iii)    the delivery by the Company of the items set forth in Section 2.3 of this Agreement;
(iv)    the Registration Statement shall be effective on the date of this Agreement and at each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or shall, to the Company’s knowledge, be pending or contemplated by the Commission and any request on the part of the Commission for additional information shall have been complied with to the reasonable satisfaction of the Representative;
(v)    by the Execution Date, if required by FINRA, the Underwriters shall have received clearance from FINRA as to the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Underwriters as described in the Registration Statement;
(vi)    the Closing Shares, the Option Shares and the Underlying Shares shall have been approved for listing on the Trading Market; and
(vii)    prior to and on each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any: (i) there shall have been no material adverse change or development involving a prospective material adverse change in the condition or prospects or the business activities, financial or otherwise, of the Company from the latest dates as of which such condition is set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; (ii) no action suit or proceeding, at law or in equity, shall have been pending or threatened against the Company or any Affiliate of the Company before or by any court or federal or state commission, board or other administrative agency wherein an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding may materially






adversely affect the business, operations, prospects or financial condition or income of the Company, except as set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; (iii) no stop order shall have been issued under the Securities Act and no proceedings therefor shall have been initiated or threatened by the Commission; and (iv) the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto shall contain all material statements which are required to be stated therein in accordance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and shall conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and neither the Registration Statement nor the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto shall contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
ARTICLE III.
REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES
3.1    Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to the Underwriters as of the Execution Date, as of the Closing Date and as of each Option Closing Date, if any, as follows:
(a)Subsidiaries. All of the direct and indirect Subsidiaries of the Company are set forth in the SEC Reports. The Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary free and clear of any Liens, and all of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary are validly issued and are fully paid, non-assessable and free of preemptive and similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. If the Company has no Subsidiaries, all other references to the Subsidiaries or any of them in the Transaction Documents shall be disregarded.
(b)    Organization and Qualification. The Company and each of the Subsidiaries is an entity duly incorporated or otherwise organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization, with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation nor default of any of the provisions of its respective certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation or other entity in each jurisdiction in which the nature of the business conducted or property owned by it makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect and no Proceeding has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking, limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification.
(c)    Authorization; Enforcement. The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution and delivery of this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents by the Company and the consummation by it of






the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby have been duly authorized by all necessary action on the part of the Company and no further action is required by the Company, the Board of Directors or the Company’s stockholders in connection herewith or therewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. This Agreement and each other Transaction Document to which it is a party has been (or upon delivery will have been) duly executed by the Company and, when delivered in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, will constitute the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.
(d)    No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement and the other Transaction Documents to which it is a party, the issuance and sale of the Securities and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby do not and will not (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, or result in the creation of any Lien upon any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, anti-dilution or similar adjustments, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company or Subsidiary debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company or a Subsidiary is bound or affected; except in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii), such as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(e)    Filings, Consents and Approvals. The Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other Person in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Transaction Documents, other than: (i) the filing with the Commission of the Prospectus, (ii) application(s) to each applicable Trading Market for the listing of the Shares, Warrant Shares and Conversion Shares for trading thereon in the time and manner required thereby, and (iii) such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws (collectively, the “Required Approvals”).

(f)    Registration Statement. The Company has filed with the Commission the Registration Statement, including any related Prospectus or Prospectuses, for the registration of the Securities under the Securities Act, which Registration Statement has been prepared by the Company in all material respects in conformity with the requirements of the Securities






Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission on the date hereof (the “Effective Date”) and was post-effectively amended by the Rule 462(b) Registration Statement which is effective on the date hereof. The Company has advised the Representative of all further information (financial and other) with respect to the Company required to be set forth therein in the Registration Statement and Prospectus. Any reference in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein; and any reference in this Agreement to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the date of this Agreement, or the issue date of the Prospectus as the case may be, deemed to be incorporated therein by reference. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included,” “described,” “referenced,” “set forth” or “stated” in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or the Prospectus, as the case may be. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the use of the Prospectus has been issued, and no proceeding for any such purpose is pending or has been initiated or, to the Company's knowledge, is threatened by the Commission. For purposes of this Agreement, “free writing prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company will not, without the prior consent of the Representative, prepare, use or refer to, any free writing prospectus.
(g)    Issuance of Securities. The Securities are duly authorized and, when issued and paid for in accordance with the applicable Transaction Documents, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, and free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Underlying Shares, when issued in accordance with the terms of the Transaction Documents, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, and free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. Other than with respect to the Warrant Shares, the Company has reserved from its duly authorized capital stock, a number of shares of Common Stock for issuance of the Underlying Shares at least equal to the Required Minimum on the date hereof. The holders of the Securities will not be subject to personal liability by reason of being such holders. The Securities are not and will not be subject to the preemptive rights of any holders of any security of the Company or similar contractual rights granted by the Company. All corporate action required to be taken for the authorization, issuance and sale of the Securities has been duly and validly taken. The Securities conform in all material respects to all statements with respect thereto contained in the Registration Statement.

(h)    Capitalization. The capitalization of the Company is as set forth in the SEC Reports. The Company has not issued any capital stock since its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act, other than pursuant to the exercise of employee stock options under the Company’s stock option plans and the vesting of restricted stock units under the Company’s equity compensation plans, the issuance of shares of Common Stock to






employees participating in the Company’s 401(k) plan as matching contributions pursuant to such plan, the issuance of shares of Common Stock to employees pursuant to the Company’s employee stock purchase plans and pursuant to the conversion and/or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date of the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act. No Person has any right of first refusal, preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. Other than as disclosed in the Prospectus, and except as a result of (i) the purchase and sale of the Securities, and (ii) the issuance of the shares of Common Stock to employees participating in the Company’s 401(k) plan as matching contributions pursuant to such plan, there are no outstanding options, warrants, scrip rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents. The issuance and sale of the Securities will not obligate the Company to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person (other than the Underwriters) and will not result in a right of any holder of Company securities to adjust the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price under any of such securities. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. The authorized shares of the Company conform in all material respects to all statements relating thereto contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. No further approval or authorization of any stockholder, the Board of Directors or others is required for the issuance and sale of the Securities. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(h), there are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.
(i)    SEC Reports; Financial Statements. The Company has filed all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by the Company under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law or regulation to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, together with the Prospectus and any Prospectus Supplement, being collectively referred to herein as the “SEC Reports”) on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension. As of their respective dates, the SEC Reports complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and none of the SEC Reports, when filed, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The financial statements of the Company included in the SEC Reports comply in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing. Such financial statements have been






prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved (“GAAP”), except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries as of and for the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, immaterial, year-end audit adjustments. The agreements and documents described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement and the SEC Reports conform to the descriptions thereof contained therein and there are no agreements or other documents required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder to be described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the SEC Reports or to be filed with the Commission as exhibits to the Registration Statement, that have not been so described or filed. Each agreement or other instrument (however characterized or described) to which the Company is a party or by which it is or may be bound or affected and (i) that is referred to in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the SEC Reports, or (ii) is material to the Company’s business, has been duly authorized and validly executed by the Company, is in full force and effect in all material respects and is enforceable against the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, the other parties thereto, in accordance with its terms, except (x) as such enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, (y) as enforceability of any indemnification or contribution provision may be limited under the federal and state securities laws, and (z) that the remedy of specific performance and injunctive and other forms of equitable relief may be subject to the equitable defenses and to the discretion of the court before which any proceeding therefore may be brought. None of such agreements or instruments has been assigned by the Company, and neither the Company nor, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, any other party is in default thereunder and, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, no event has occurred that, with the lapse of time or the giving of notice, or both, would constitute a default thereunder. To the best of the Company’s knowledge, performance by the Company of the material provisions of such agreements or instruments will not result in a violation of any existing applicable law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any governmental agency or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its assets or businesses, including, without limitation, those relating to environmental laws and regulations.
(j)    Material Changes; Undisclosed Events, Liabilities or Developments. Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as specifically disclosed in a subsequent SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development that has had or that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial statements pursuant to GAAP or disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements






to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock, (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any officer, director or Affiliate, except pursuant to existing Company equity compensation or stock purchase plans or the Company’s 401(k) plan, and (vi) no officer or director of the Company has resigned from any position with the Company. The Company does not have pending before the Commission any request for confidential treatment of information. Except for the issuance of the Securities contemplated by this Agreement, no event, liability, fact, circumstance, occurrence or development has occurred or exists or is reasonably expected to occur or exist with respect to the Company or its Subsidiaries or their respective businesses, properties, operations, assets or financial condition that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is made or deemed made that has not been publicly disclosed at least 1 Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is made. Unless otherwise disclosed in an SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, the Company has not: (i) issued any securities or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, for borrowed money; or (ii) declared or paid any dividend or made any other distribution on or in respect to its capital stock.
(k)    Litigation. There is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company, any Subsidiary or any of their respective properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) (collectively, an “Action”) which (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of any of the Transaction Documents or the Securities or (ii) could, if there were an unfavorable decision, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor any director or officer thereof, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty. There has not been, and to the knowledge of the Company, there is not pending or contemplated, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or any current or former director or officer of the Company. The Commission has not issued any stop order or other order suspending the effectiveness of any registration statement filed by the Company or any Subsidiary under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act.
(l)    Labor Relations. No labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company, which could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company or such Subsidiary, and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company and its Subsidiaries believe that their relationships with their employees are good. To the knowledge of the Company, no executive officer of the Company or any Subsidiary, is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant in favor of any third party, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of






employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(m)    Compliance. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary: (i) is in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company or any Subsidiary under), nor has the Company or any Subsidiary received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any judgment, decree or order of any court, arbitrator or other governmental authority or (iii) is or has been in violation of any statute, rule, ordinance or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws relating to taxes, environmental protection, occupational health and safety, product quality and safety and employment and labor matters, except in each case as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(n)    Regulatory Permits. The Company and the Subsidiaries possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports, except where the failure to possess such permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (each, a “Material Permit”), and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit. The disclosures in the Registration Statement concerning the effects of Federal, State, local and all foreign regulation on the Company’s business as currently contemplated are correct in all material respects.
(o)    Title to Assets. The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property owned by them and good and marketable title in all personal property (excluding the Intellectual Property Rights, which are covered in Section 3.1(p)) owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all Liens, except for (i) Liens as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries and (ii) Liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, for which appropriate reserves have been made therefor in accordance with GAAP and, the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties. Any real property and facilities held under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with which the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance, except where failure to be in compliance could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(p)    Intellectual Property. To their knowledge, the Company and the Subsidiaries have, or have rights to use, all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark applications, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other intellectual property rights and similar rights necessary or required for use in connection with their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports and which the failure to so have could have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the “Intellectual Property Rights”). None of, and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received a






notice (written or otherwise) that any of, the Intellectual Property Rights has expired, terminated or been abandoned, or is expected to expire or terminate or be abandoned, within two (2) years from the date of this Agreement. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, a written notice of a claim or otherwise has any knowledge that the Intellectual Property Rights violate or infringe upon the rights of any Person, except as could not have or reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable and there is no existing infringement by another Person of any of the Intellectual Property Rights. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their intellectual properties, except where failure to do so could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(q)    Insurance. The Company and the Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the businesses in which the Company and the Subsidiaries are engaged, including, but not limited to, directors and officers insurance coverage at least equal to the aggregate Closing Purchase Price. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business without a significant increase in cost.
(r)    Transactions With Affiliates and Employees. Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, none of the officers or directors of the Company or any Subsidiary and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company or any Subsidiary is presently a party to any transaction with the Company or any Subsidiary (other than for services as employees, officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, providing for the borrowing of money from or lending of money to or otherwise requiring payments to or from, any officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an officer, director, trustee, stockholder, member or partner, in each case in excess of $120,000 other than for (i) payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company and (iii) other employee benefits, including stock option and restricted stock agreements under any equity compensation plan of the Company.
(s)    Sarbanes-Oxley; Internal Accounting Controls. The Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance with any and all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that are effective as of the date hereof, and any and all applicable rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder that are effective as of the date hereof and as of the Closing Date. The Company and the Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization,






and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company and the Subsidiaries have established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) for the Company and the Subsidiaries and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures of the Company and the Subsidiaries as of the end of the period covered by the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of its certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. As disclosed in the SEC Reports, the Company’s certifying officers concluded that a material weakness related to the calculation of stock compensation expense existed as of the Evaluation Date. Except for work undertaken to remediate such weakness, since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) of the Company and its Subsidiaries that have materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the internal control over financial reporting of the Company and its Subsidiaries.
(t)    Certain Fees. Except as set forth in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement, no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company, any Subsidiary or Affiliate of the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. To the Company’s knowledge, there are no other arrangements, agreements or understandings of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its stockholders that may affect the Underwriters’ compensation, as determined by FINRA. The Company has not made any direct or indirect payments (in cash, securities or otherwise) to: (i) any person, as a finder’s fee, consulting fee or otherwise, in consideration of such person raising capital for the Company or introducing to the Company persons who raised or provided capital to the Company; (ii)  any FINRA member; or (iii) any person or entity that has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member, within the twelve months prior to the Execution Date. None of the net proceeds of the Offering will be paid by the Company to any participating FINRA member or its affiliates, except as specifically authorized herein.
(u)    Investment Company. The Company is not, and is not an Affiliate of, and immediately after receipt of payment for the Securities will not be or be an Affiliate of, an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The Company shall conduct its business in a manner so that it will not become an “investment company” subject to registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
(v)    Registration Rights. Other than as disclosed in the SEC Reports, no Person has any right to cause the Company or any Subsidiary to effect the registration under the Securities Act of any securities of the Company or any Subsidiary.






(w)    Listing and Maintenance Requirements. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or which to its knowledge is likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission is contemplating terminating such registration. Except as disclosed in the SEC Reports, the Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market. The Company is, and following the Closing hereunder, has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be, in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements, other than with respect to future compliance with the minimum bid price requirement and the minimum stockholders’ equity requirement. The Common Stock is currently eligible for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation and the Company is current in payment of the fees of the Depository Trust Company (or such other established clearing corporation) in connection with such electronic transfer.
(x)    Application of Takeover Protections. The Company and the Board of Directors have taken all necessary action, if any, in order to render inapplicable any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or other similar anti‑takeover provision under the Company’s certificate of incorporation (or similar charter documents) or the laws of its state of incorporation that is or could become applicable as a result of the Underwriters and the Company fulfilling their obligations or exercising their rights under the Transaction Documents.
(y)    Disclosure; 10b-5. The Registration Statement (and any further documents to be filed with the Commission in connection with the Offering) contains all exhibits and schedules as required by the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, if any, at the time it became effective, complied in all material respects with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations under the Securities Act and did not and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any Prospectus Supplement, each as of its respective date, comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations. Each of the Prospectus and any Prospectus Supplement, as amended or supplemented, did not and will not contain as of the date thereof any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. Any further SEC Reports, to be filed and incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement, when such documents are filed with the Commission, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations, as applicable, and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading. No post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement reflecting any facts or events arising after the date thereof which represent, individually or in the aggregate, a fundamental change in the information set forth therein is required to be filed with the Commission. There are no documents






required to be filed with the Commission in connection with the transaction contemplated hereby that (x) have not been filed as required pursuant to the Securities Act or (y) will not be filed within the requisite time period. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement, or to be filed as exhibits or schedules to the Registration Statement, which have not been described or filed as required.
(z)    No Integrated Offering. Neither the Company, nor any of its Affiliates, nor any Person acting on its or their behalf has, directly or indirectly, made any offers or sales of any security or solicited any offers to buy any security, under circumstances that would cause this offering of the Securities to be integrated with prior offerings by the Company for purposes of any applicable shareholder approval provisions of any Trading Market on which any of the securities of the Company are listed or designated.
(aa)    Solvency. Based on the consolidated financial condition of the Company as of the Closing Date, after giving effect to the receipt by the Company of the proceeds from the sale of the Securities hereunder, (i) the fair saleable value of the Company’s assets exceeds the amount that will be required to be paid on or in respect of the Company’s existing debts and other liabilities (including known contingent liabilities) as they mature, (ii) the Company’s assets do not constitute unreasonably small capital to carry on its business as now conducted and as proposed to be conducted including its capital needs taking into account the particular capital requirements of the business conducted by the Company, consolidated and projected capital requirements and capital availability thereof, and (iii) the current cash flow of the Company, together with the proceeds the Company would receive, were it to liquidate all of its assets, after taking into account all anticipated uses of the cash, would be sufficient to pay all amounts on or in respect of its liabilities when such amounts are required to be paid. The Company does not intend to incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature (taking into account the timing and amounts of cash to be payable on or in respect of its debt). The Company has no knowledge of any facts or circumstances which lead it to believe that it will file for reorganization or liquidation under the bankruptcy or reorganization laws of any jurisdiction within six months from the Closing Date. The SEC Reports sets forth as of the date hereof all outstanding secured and unsecured Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary, or for which the Company or any Subsidiary has commitments.
(bb)    Tax Status. Except for matters that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its Subsidiaries each (i) has made or filed, or secured all extensions for the filing of all applicable United States federal, state and local income and all foreign income and franchise tax returns, reports and declarations required by any jurisdiction to which it is subject, (ii) has paid all taxes and other governmental assessments and charges that are material in amount, shown or determined to be due on such returns, reports and declarations and (iii) has set aside on its books provision reasonably adequate for the payment of all material taxes for periods subsequent to the periods to which such returns, reports or declarations apply. There are no unpaid taxes in any material amount claimed to be due by the taxing authority of any jurisdiction, and the officers of the Company or of any Subsidiary know of no basis for any such claim. The provisions for taxes payable, if any, shown on the financial statements filed with or as part of the Registration Statement are sufficient for






all accrued and unpaid taxes, whether or not disputed, and for all periods to and including the dates of such consolidated financial statements. The term “taxes” means all federal, state, local, foreign, and other net income, gross income, gross receipts, sales, use, ad valorem, transfer, franchise, profits, license, lease, service, service use, withholding, payroll, employment, excise, severance, stamp, occupation, premium, property, windfall profits, customs, duties or other taxes, fees, assessments, or charges of any kind whatsoever, together with any interest and any penalties, additions to tax, or additional amounts with respect thereto. The term “returns” means all returns, declarations, reports, statements, and other documents required to be filed in respect to taxes.
(cc)    Foreign Corrupt Practices. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, any agent or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary, has (i) directly or indirectly, used any funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses related to foreign or domestic political activity, (ii) made any unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees or to any foreign or domestic political parties or campaigns from corporate funds, (iii) failed to disclose fully any contribution made by the Company or any Subsidiary (or made by any person acting on its behalf of which the Company is aware) which is in violation of law, or (iv) violated in any material respect any provision of FCPA. The Company has taken reasonable steps to ensure that its accounting controls and procedures are sufficient to cause the Company to comply in all material respects with the FCPA.
(dd)    Accountants. To the knowledge and belief of the Company, the Company Auditor (i) is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Exchange Act and (ii) shall express its opinion with respect to the financial statements to be included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2019. The Company Auditor has not, during the periods covered by the financial statements included in the Prospectus, provided to the Company any non-audit services, as such term is used in Section 10A(g) of the Exchange Act.
(ee)    Office of Foreign Assets Control. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary nor, to the Company's knowledge, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any Subsidiary is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department.
(ff)    U.S. Real Property Holding Corporation. The Company is not and has never been a U.S. real property holding corporation within the meaning of Section 897 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Company shall so certify upon the Representative’s request.
(gg)    Bank Holding Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates is subject to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”) and to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates owns or controls, directly or indirectly, five percent (5%) or more of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities or twenty-five percent (25%) or more of the total equity of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates exercises a controlling influence over the






management or policies of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve.
(hh)    Money Laundering. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in material compliance with applicable financial record-keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, applicable money laundering statutes and applicable rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any Subsidiary with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, threatened.
(ii)    D&O Questionnaires. To the Company’s knowledge, all information contained in the questionnaires completed by each of the Company’s directors and officers immediately prior to the Offering as well as in the Lock-Up Agreement provided to the Underwriters is true and correct in all material respects and the Company has not become aware of any information which would cause the information disclosed in such questionnaires become inaccurate and incorrect.
(jj)    FINRA Affiliation. To the Company’s knowledge, no officer, director or any beneficial owner of 5% or more of the Company’s unregistered securities has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member (as determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of FINRA) that is participating in the Offering. The Company will advise the Representative and EGS if it learns that any officer, director or owner of 5% or more of the Company’s outstanding shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents is or becomes an affiliate or associated person of a FINRA member firm.
(kk)    Officers’ Certificate. Any certificate signed by any duly authorized officer of the Company and delivered to the Representative or EGS shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Underwriters as to the matters covered thereby.
(ll)    Board of Directors. The Board of Directors is comprised of the persons set forth under the heading of the Prospectus captioned “Management.” The qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder applicable to the Company and the rules of the Trading Market. At least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and the rules of the Trading Market. In addition, at least a majority of the persons serving on the Board of Directors qualify as “independent” as defined under the rules of the Trading Market.
ARTICLE IV.
OTHER AGREEMENTS OF THE PARTIES
4.1    Amendments to Registration Statement. The Company has delivered, or will as promptly as practicable deliver, to the Underwriters complete conformed copies of the Registration Statement and of each consent and certificate of experts, as applicable, filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits), the Prospectus and any






Prospectus Supplement, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as an Underwriter reasonably requests. Neither the Company nor any of its directors and officers has distributed and none of them will distribute, prior to the Closing Date, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Securities other than the Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement, the Registration Statement, and copies of the documents incorporated by reference therein. The Company shall not file any such amendment or supplement to which the Representative shall reasonably object in writing.
4.2    Federal Securities Laws.

(a)    Compliance. During the time when a Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of or dealings in the Securities in accordance with the provisions hereof and the Prospectus. If at any time when a Prospectus relating to the Securities is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, any event shall have occurred as a result of which, in the opinion of counsel for the Company or counsel for the Underwriters, the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, includes an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, or if it is necessary at any time to amend the Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will notify the Underwriters promptly and prepare and file with the Commission, subject to Section 4.1 hereof, an appropriate amendment or supplement in accordance with Section 10 of the Securities Act.
(b)    Filing of Final Prospectus. The Company will file the Prospectus (in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative) with the Commission pursuant to the requirements of Rule 424.
(c)    Exchange Act Registration. For a period of two years from the Execution Date, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to maintain the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act. The Company will not deregister the Common Stock under the Exchange Act without the prior written consent of the Representative, subject to the exercise of fiduciary duties.

(d)    Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents and agrees that it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Securities using a document that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433 of the rules and regulations under the Securities Act, without the prior written consent of the Representative. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Representative is herein referred to as a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus” as defined in rules and regulations under the Securities Act, and has complied and will comply with the applicable requirements of Rule 433 of the Securities Act, including timely Commission filing where required, legending and record keeping.







4.3    Delivery to the Underwriters of Prospectuses. The Company will deliver to the Underwriters, without charge, from time to time during the period when the Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act such number of copies of each Prospectus as the Underwriters may reasonably request.

4.4    Effectiveness and Events Requiring Notice to the Underwriters. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Registration Statement to remain effective with a current prospectus until the later of nine (9) months from the Execution Date and the date on which the Warrants are no longer outstanding, and will notify the Underwriters and holders of the Warrants immediately and confirm the notice in writing: (i) of the effectiveness of the Registration Statement and any amendment thereto; (ii) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iii) of the issuance by any state securities commission of any proceedings for the suspension of the qualification of the Securities for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iv) of the mailing and delivery to the Commission for filing of any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus; (v) of the receipt of any comments or request for any additional information from the Commission; and (vi) of the happening of any event during the period described in this Section 4.4 that, in the judgment of the Company, makes any statement of a material fact made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. If the Commission or any state securities commission shall enter a stop order or suspend such qualification at any time, the Company will make every reasonable effort to obtain promptly the lifting of such order.


4.5    Expenses of the Offering.

(a)    General Expenses Related to the Offering. The Company hereby agrees to pay on each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, to the extent not paid at the Closing Date, all expenses incident to the performance of the obligations of the Company under this Agreement, including, but not limited to: (a) all filing fees and communication expenses relating to the registration of the Securities to be sold in the Offering (including the Option Securities) with the Commission; (b) all FINRA Public Offering Filing System fees associated with the review of the Offering by FINRA; all fees and expenses relating to the listing of such Closing Shares, Option Shares and Underlying Shares on the Trading Market and such other stock exchanges as the Company and the Representative together determine; (c) all fees, expenses and disbursements relating to the registration or qualification of such Securities under the “blue sky” securities laws of such states and any foreign jurisdictions as the Representative may reasonably designate; (d) the costs of all mailing and printing of the underwriting documents (including, without limitation, the Underwriting Agreement, any Blue Sky Surveys and, if appropriate, any Agreement Among Underwriters, Selected Dealers’ Agreement, Underwriters’ Questionnaire and Power of Attorney), Registration Statements, Prospectuses and all amendments, supplements and exhibits thereto and as many preliminary and final Prospectuses as the Representative may reasonably deem necessary; (e) the costs and expenses of the Company’s public relations firm; (f) the costs of preparing, printing and delivering the Securities; (g) fees and expenses






of the Transfer Agent for the Securities (including, without limitation, any fees required for same-day processing of any instruction letter delivered by the Company and fees and expenses pursuant to the Warrant Agency Agreement and the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement); (h) stock transfer and/or stamp taxes, if any, payable upon the transfer of securities from the Company to the Underwriters; (i) the fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants; (j) the fees and expenses of the Company’s legal counsel and other agents and representatives; and (k) the Underwriters’ costs of mailing prospectuses to prospective investors. The Underwriters may also deduct from the net proceeds of the Offering payable to the Company on the Closing Date, or each Option Closing Date, if any, the expenses set forth herein to be paid by the Company to the Underwriters.
(b)    Expenses. The Company further agrees that, in addition to the expenses payable pursuant to Section 4.5(a), on the Closing Date it will reimburse the Representative for its out-of-pocket expenses related to the Offering in an amount up to $90,000, and the remainder of which shall be paid by deduction from the proceeds of the Offering contemplated herein.

4.6    Application of Net Proceeds. The Company will apply the net proceeds from the Offering received by it in a manner consistent with the application described under the caption “Use of Proceeds” in the Prospectus.

4.7    Delivery of Earnings Statements to Security Holders. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but not later than the first day of the fifteenth full calendar month following the Execution Date, an earnings statement (which need not be certified by independent public or independent certified public accountants unless required by the Securities Act or the Rules and Regulations under the Securities Act, but which shall satisfy the provisions of Rule 158(a) under Section 11(a) of the Securities Act) covering a period of at least twelve consecutive months beginning after the Execution Date.

4.8    Stabilization. Neither the Company, nor, to its knowledge, any of its employees, directors or shareholders (without the consent of the Representative) has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that has constituted or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act, or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Securities.

4.9    Internal Controls. The Company will maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary in order to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.

4.10    Accountants. The Company shall continue to retain a nationally recognized independent certified public accounting firm for a period of at least three years after the Execution Date. The Underwriters acknowledge that the Company Auditor is acceptable to the Underwriters.







4.11    FINRA. The Company shall advise the Underwriters (who shall make an appropriate filing with FINRA) if it is aware that any 5% or greater shareholder of the Company becomes an affiliate or associated person of an Underwriter.

4.12    No Fiduciary Duties. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Underwriters’ responsibility to the Company is solely contractual and commercial in nature, based on arms-length negotiations and that neither the Underwriters nor their affiliates or any selected dealer shall be deemed to be acting in a fiduciary capacity, or otherwise owes any fiduciary duty to the Company or any of its affiliates in connection with the Offering and the other transactions contemplated by this Agreement. Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the contrary, the Company acknowledges that the Underwriters may have financial interests in the success of the Offering that are not limited to the difference between the price to the public and the purchase price paid to the Company by the Underwriters for the shares and the Underwriters have no obligation to disclose, or account to the Company for, any of such additional financial interests. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against the Underwriters with respect to any breach or alleged breach of fiduciary duty.

4.13    Underlying Shares. The shares of Common Stock underlying the Preferred Stock shall be issued free of legends. If all or any portion of a Warrant is exercised at a time when there is an effective registration statement to cover the issuance of the Warrant Shares or if the Warrant is exercised via cashless exercise at a time when such Warrant Shares would be eligible for resale under Rule 144 by a non-affiliate of the Company, the Warrant Shares issued pursuant to any such exercise shall be issued free of all restrictive legends. If at any time following the date hereof the Registration Statement (or any subsequent registration statement registering the sale or resale of the Warrant Shares) is not effective or is not otherwise available for the sale of the Warrant Shares, the Company shall promptly notify the holders of the Warrants in writing that such registration statement is not then effective and thereafter shall promptly notify such holders when the registration statement is effective again and available for the sale of the Warrant Shares (it being understood and agreed that the foregoing shall not limit the ability of the Company to issue, or any holder thereof to sell, any of the Warrant Shares in compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws).
4.14    Board Composition and Board Designations. The Company shall use its reasonable best efforts to ensure that: (i) the qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and with the listing requirements of the Trading Market and (ii) if applicable, at least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder.
4.15    Securities Laws Disclosure; Publicity. By 9:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the date hereof, the Company shall issue a press release disclosing the material terms of the Offering. The Company and the Representative shall consult with each other in issuing any other press releases with respect to the Offering, and neither the Company nor any Underwriter shall issue any such press release nor otherwise make any such public statement without the prior consent of the Company, with respect to any press release of such Underwriter, or without the prior consent of such Underwriter, with respect to any press release of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be withheld or delayed, except if such disclosure is required by law, in which case the disclosing party shall promptly provide the other party with prior notice of such public statement






or communication. The Company will not issue press releases or engage in any other publicity, without the Representative’s prior written consent, for a period ending at 5:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the first business day following the 40th day following the Closing Date, other than normal and customary releases issued in the ordinary course of the Company’s business.
4.16    Shareholder Rights Plan. No claim will be made or enforced by the Company or, with the consent of the Company, any other Person, that any Underwriter of the Securities is an “Acquiring Person” under any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or similar anti-takeover plan or arrangement in effect or hereafter adopted by the Company, or that any Underwriter of Securities could be deemed to trigger the provisions of any such plan or arrangement, by virtue of receiving Securities.
4.17    Reservation of Common Stock. As of the date hereof, the Company has reserved and the Company shall continue to reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, a sufficient number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of enabling the Company to issue the Required Minimum other than the Warrant Shares. From and after the effective date of the Amendment, the Company will reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, a sufficient number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of enabling the Company to issue the Warrant Shares.
4.18    Listing of Common Stock. The Company hereby agrees to use best efforts to maintain the listing or quotation of the Common Stock on the Trading Market on which it is currently listed, and concurrently with the Closing, the Company shall apply to list or quote all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares, Conversion Shares and Warrant Shares on such Trading Market and promptly secure the listing of all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares, Conversion Shares and Warrant Shares on such Trading Market. The Company further agrees, if the Company applies to have the Common Stock traded on any other Trading Market, it will then include in such application all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares, Conversion Shares and Warrant Shares, and will take such other action as is necessary to cause all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares, Conversion Shares and Warrant Shares to be listed or quoted on such other Trading Market as promptly as possible. The Company will then take all action reasonably necessary to continue the listing and trading of its Common Stock on a Trading Market and to comply in all respects with the Company’s reporting, filing and other obligations under the bylaws or rules of the Trading Market. The Company agrees to use its reasonable best efforts to maintain the eligibility of the Common Stock for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation, including, without limitation, by timely payment of fees to the Depository Trust Company or such other established clearing corporation in connection with such electronic transfer.
4.19    Subsequent Equity Sales/Authorized Share Approval.
(a)    The Company shall hold an annual or special meeting of stockholders within 60 calendar days of the date hereof for the purpose of obtaining Authorized Share Approval, with the recommendation of the Company’s Board of Directors that such proposal is approved, and the Company shall solicit proxies from its stockholders in connection therewith in the same manner as all other management proposals in such proxy statement and all management-appointed proxyholders shall vote their proxies in favor of such proposal. If the Company does not obtain Authorized Share Approval at the first meeting, the Company shall call a meeting every four (4) months thereafter to seek Authorized Share






Approval until the earlier of the date on which Authorized Share Approval is obtained or the Warrants are no longer outstanding.
(b)    From the date hereof until the later of (i) 90 days following the Closing Date, and (ii) fifteen (15) days after the date that the Authorized Share Approval is effective, neither the Company nor any Subsidiary shall issue, enter into any agreement to issue or announce the issuance or proposed issuance of any shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents.
(c)    From the date hereof until the one year anniversary of the Closing Date, the Company shall be prohibited from effecting or entering into an agreement to effect any issuance by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents (or a combination of units thereof) involving a Variable Rate Transaction. “Variable Rate Transaction” means a transaction in which the Company (i) issues or sells any debt or equity securities that are convertible into, exchangeable or exercisable for, or include the right to receive, additional shares of Common Stock either (A) at a conversion price, exercise price or exchange rate or other price that is based upon, and/or varies with, the trading prices of or quotations for the shares of Common Stock at any time after the initial issuance of such debt or equity securities or (B) with a conversion, exercise or exchange price that is subject to being reset at some future date after the initial issuance of such debt or equity security or upon the occurrence of specified or contingent events directly or indirectly related to the business of the Company or the market for the Common Stock or (ii) enters into, or effects a transaction under, any agreement, including, but not limited to, an equity line of credit, whereby the Company may issue securities at a future determined price. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall be permitted to enter into, or effect a transaction under, an at-the-market offering with the Representative after the 180 day anniversary of the Closing Date. Any Underwriter shall be entitled to obtain injunctive relief against the Company to preclude any such issuance, which remedy shall be in addition to any right to collect damages.
(d)    Notwithstanding the foregoing, this Section 4.19 shall not apply in respect of an Exempt Issuance, except that no Variable Rate Transaction shall be an Exempt Issuance.
4.20    Research Independence. The Company acknowledges that each Underwriter’s research analysts and research departments, if any, are required to be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and that such Underwriter’s research analysts may hold and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company and/or the offering that differ from the views of its investment bankers. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against such Underwriter with respect to any conflict of interest that may arise from the fact that the views expressed by their independent research analysts and research departments may be different from or inconsistent with the views or advice communicated to the Company by such Underwriter’s investment banking divisions. The Company acknowledges that the Representative is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short position in debt or equity securities of the Company.







ARTICLE V.
DEFAULT BY UNDERWRITERS

If on the Closing Date or any Option Closing Date, if any, any Underwriter shall fail to purchase and pay for the portion of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which such Underwriter has agreed to purchase and pay for on such date (otherwise than by reason of any default on the part of the Company), the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, shall use their reasonable efforts to procure within 36 hours thereafter one or more of the other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase from the Company such amounts as may be agreed upon and upon the terms set forth herein, the Closing Securities or Option Securities , as the case may be, which the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase. If during such 36 hours the Representative shall not have procured such other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, agreed to be purchased by the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters, then (a) if the aggregate number of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur does not exceed 10% of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, covered hereby, the other Underwriters shall be obligated, severally, in proportion to the respective numbers of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which they are obligated to purchase hereunder, to purchase the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which such defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase, or (b) if the aggregate number of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur exceeds 10% of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, covered hereby, the Company or the Representative will have the right to terminate this Agreement without liability on the part of the non-defaulting Underwriters or of the Company except to the extent provided in Article VI hereof. In the event of a default by any Underwriter or Underwriters, as set forth in this Article V, the applicable Closing Date may be postponed for such period, not exceeding seven days, as the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, may determine in order that the required changes in the Prospectus or in any other documents or arrangements may be effected. The term “Underwriter” includes any person substituted for a defaulting Underwriter. Any action taken under this Section shall not relieve any defaulting Underwriter from liability in respect of any default of such Underwriter under this Agreement.
ARTICLE VI.
INDEMNIFICATION
6.1    Indemnification of the Underwriters. Subject to the conditions set forth below, the Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Underwriters, and each dealer selected by each Underwriter that participates in the offer and sale of the Securities (each a “Selected Dealer”) and each of their respective directors, officers and employees and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or any Selected Dealer (“Controlling Person”) within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever (including but not limited to any and all legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever, whether arising out of any action between such Underwriter and the Company or between such Underwriter and any third party or otherwise) to which they or any of them may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other statute or at common law or otherwise or under the laws of foreign countries, arising out of or based upon






any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in (i) any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (as from time to time each may be amended and supplemented); (ii) any materials or information provided to investors by, or with the approval of, the Company in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Securities, including any “road show” or investor presentations made to investors by the Company (whether in person or electronically); or (iii) any application or other document or written communication (in this Article VI, collectively called “application”) executed by the Company or based upon written information furnished by the Company in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Securities under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, any state securities commission or agency, Trading Market or any securities exchange; or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, unless such statement or omission was made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company with respect to the applicable Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, or in any application, as the case may be. With respect to any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in the Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the indemnity agreement contained in this Section 6.1 shall not inure to the benefit of an Underwriter to the extent that any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense of such Underwriter results from the fact that a copy of the Prospectus was not given or sent to the Person asserting any such loss, liability, claim or damage at or prior to the written confirmation of sale of the Securities to such Person as required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and if the untrue statement or omission has been corrected in the Prospectus, unless such failure to deliver the Prospectus was a result of non-compliance by the Company with its obligations under this Agreement. The Company agrees promptly to notify each Underwriter of the commencement of any litigation or proceedings against the Company or any of its officers, directors or Controlling Persons in connection with the issue and sale of the Public Securities or in connection with the Registration Statement or Prospectus.
6.2    Procedure. If any action is brought against an Underwriter, a Selected Dealer or a Controlling Person in respect of which indemnity may be sought against the Company pursuant to Section 6.1, such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person, as the case may be, shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the institution of such action and the Company shall assume the defense of such action, including the employment and fees of counsel (subject to the reasonable approval of such Underwriter or such Selected Dealer, as the case may be) and payment of actual expenses. Such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall have the right to employ its or their own counsel in any such case, but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the expense of such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person unless (i) the employment of such counsel at the expense of the Company shall have been authorized in writing by the Company in connection with the defense of such action, or (ii) the Company shall not have employed counsel to have charge of the defense of such action, or (iii) such indemnified party or parties shall have reasonably concluded that there may be defenses available to it or them which are different from or additional to those available to the Company (in which case the Company shall not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party or parties), in any of which events the reasonable fees and expenses of not more than one additional firm of attorneys selected by such Underwriter (in addition to local counsel), Selected Dealer and/or Controlling Person shall be borne by the Company. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, if any Underwriter, Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall assume the defense






of such action as provided above, the Company shall have the right to approve the terms of any settlement of such action which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld.
6.3    Indemnification of the Company. Each Underwriter severally and not jointly agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its directors, officers and employees and agents who control the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the foregoing indemnity from the Company to such Underwriter, as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions made in any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any application, in reliance upon, and in strict conformity with, written information furnished to the Company with respect to such Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in such Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any such application. In case any action shall be brought against the Company or any other Person so indemnified based on any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or any application, and in respect of which indemnity may be sought against such Underwriter, such Underwriter shall have the rights and duties given to the Company, and the Company and each other Person so indemnified shall have the rights and duties given to such Underwriter by the provisions of this Article VI. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.3, no Underwriter shall be required to indemnify the Company for any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters' obligations in this Section 6.3 to indemnify the Company are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.
6.4    Contribution.
(a)    Contribution Rights. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution under the Securities Act in any case in which (i) any Person entitled to indemnification under this Article VI makes a claim for indemnification pursuant hereto but it is judicially determined (by the entry of a final judgment or decree by a court of competent jurisdiction and the expiration of time to appeal or the denial of the last right of appeal) that such indemnification may not be enforced in such case notwithstanding the fact that this Article VI provides for indemnification in such case, or (ii) contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise may be required on the part of any such Person in circumstances for which indemnification is provided under this Article VI, then, and in each such case, the Company and each Underwriter, severally and not jointly, shall contribute to the aggregate losses, liabilities, claims, damages and expenses of the nature contemplated by said indemnity agreement incurred by the Company and such Underwriter, as incurred, in such proportions that such Underwriter is responsible for that portion represented by the percentage that the underwriting discount appearing on the cover page of the Prospectus bears to the initial offering price appearing thereon and the Company is responsible for the balance; provided, that, no Person guilty of a fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any Person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section, each director, officer and employee of such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act shall have the same rights to contribution






as such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.4, no Underwriter shall be required to contribute any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters' obligations in this Section 6.4 to contribute are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.
(b)    Contribution Procedure. Within fifteen days after receipt by any party to this Agreement (or its representative) of notice of the commencement of any action, suit or proceeding, such party will, if a claim for contribution in respect thereof is to be made against another party (“contributing party”), notify the contributing party of the commencement thereof, but the failure to so notify the contributing party will not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any other party other than for contribution hereunder. In case any such action, suit or proceeding is brought against any party, and such party notifies a contributing party or its representative of the commencement thereof within the aforesaid fifteen days, the contributing party will be entitled to participate therein with the notifying party and any other contributing party similarly notified. Any such contributing party shall not be liable to any party seeking contribution on account of any settlement of any claim, action or proceeding effected by such party seeking contribution without the written consent of such contributing party. The contribution provisions contained in this Section 6.4 are intended to supersede, to the extent permitted by law, any right to contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise available.

ARTICLE VII.
MISCELLANEOUS

7.1    Termination.
(a)    Termination Right. The Representative shall have the right to terminate this Agreement at any time prior to any Closing Date, (i) if any domestic or international event or act or occurrence has materially disrupted, or in its opinion will in the immediate future materially disrupt, general securities markets in the United States, or (ii) if trading on any Trading Market shall have been suspended or materially limited, or minimum or maximum prices for trading shall have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices for securities shall have been required by FINRA or by order of the Commission or any other government authority having jurisdiction, or (iii) if the United States shall have become involved in a new war or an increase in major hostilities, or (iv) if a banking moratorium has been declared by a New York State or federal authority, or (v) if a moratorium on foreign exchange trading has been declared which materially adversely impacts the United States securities markets, or (vi) if the Company shall have sustained a material loss by fire, flood, accident, hurricane, earthquake, theft, sabotage or other calamity or malicious act which, whether or not such loss shall have been insured, will, in the Representative’s opinion, make it inadvisable to proceed with the delivery of the Securities, or (vii) if the Company is in material breach of any of its representations, warranties or covenants hereunder, or (viii) if the Representative shall have become aware after the date hereof of such a material adverse change in the conditions or prospects of the Company, or such adverse material change in general market conditions as in the Representative’s judgment would make it impracticable to proceed with the offering, sale and/or delivery of the Securities or to enforce contracts made by the Underwriters for the sale of the Securities.






(b)    Expenses. In the event this Agreement shall be terminated pursuant to Section 7.1(a), within the time specified herein or any extensions thereof pursuant to the terms herein, the Company shall be obligated to pay to the Representative its actual and accountable out of pocket expenses related to the transactions contemplated herein then due and payable, including the fees and disbursements of EGS up to $50,000 (provided, however, that such expense cap in no way limits or impairs the indemnification and contribution provisions of this Agreement).
(c)    Indemnification. Notwithstanding any contrary provision contained in this Agreement, any election hereunder or any termination of this Agreement, and whether or not this Agreement is otherwise carried out, the provisions of Article VI shall not be in any way affected by such election or termination or failure to carry out the terms of this Agreement or any part hereof.
7.2    Entire Agreement. The Transaction Documents, together with the exhibits and schedules thereto, the Prospectus and any Prospectus Supplement, contain the entire understanding of the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and thereof and supersede all prior agreements and understandings, oral or written, with respect to such matters, which the parties acknowledge have been merged into such documents, exhibits and schedules. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Engagement Agreement, dated August 30, 2019 (“Engagement Agreement”), by and between the Company and Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc., shall continue to be effective and the terms therein, including, without limitation, Section 4(b) and Section 5 with respect to any future offerings, shall continue to survive and be enforceable by the Representative in accordance with its terms, provided that, in the event of a conflict between the terms of the Engagement Agreement and this Agreement, the terms of this Agreement shall prevail.
7.3    Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries required or permitted to be provided hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of: (a) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail attachment at the email address set forth on the signature pages attached hereto at or prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on a Trading Day, (b) the next Trading Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail attachment at the e-mail address as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (c) the second (2nd) Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service or (d) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. The address for such notices and communications shall be as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto.
7.4    Amendments; Waivers. No provision of this Agreement may be waived, modified, supplemented or amended except in a written instrument signed, in the case of an amendment, by the Company and the Representative. No waiver of any default with respect to any provision, condition or requirement of this Agreement shall be deemed to be a continuing waiver in the future or a waiver of any subsequent default or a waiver of any other provision, condition or requirement hereof, nor shall any delay or omission of any party to exercise any right hereunder in any manner impair the exercise of any such right.






7.5    Headings. The headings herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Agreement and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.
7.6    Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties and their successors and permitted assigns.
7.7    Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of the Transaction Documents shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and any other Transaction Documents (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein (including with respect to the enforcement of any of the Transaction Documents), and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any action, suit or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If either party shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provisions of the Transaction Documents, then, in addition to the obligations of the Company under Article VI, the prevailing party in such action, suit or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.
7.8    Survival. The representations and warranties contained herein shall survive the Closing and the Option Closing, if any, and the delivery of the Securities.
7.9    Execution. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, all of which when taken together shall be considered one and the same agreement and shall become effective when counterparts have been signed by each party and delivered to each other party, it being understood that the parties need not sign the same counterpart. In the event that any signature is delivered by facsimile transmission or by e-mail delivery of a “.pdf” format data file, such signature shall create a valid and binding obligation of the party executing (or on whose behalf such signature is executed) with the same force and effect as if such facsimile or “.pdf” signature page were an original thereof.
7.10    Severability. If any term, provision, covenant or restriction of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable, the remainder of the terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions set forth herein shall remain in full force and effect and shall in no way be affected, impaired or invalidated, and the parties hereto shall use their






commercially reasonable efforts to find and employ an alternative means to achieve the same or substantially the same result as that contemplated by such term, provision, covenant or restriction. It is hereby stipulated and declared to be the intention of the parties that they would have executed the remaining terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions without including any of such that may be hereafter declared invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable.
7.11    Remedies. In addition to being entitled to exercise all rights provided herein or granted by law, including recovery of damages, the Underwriters and the Company will be entitled to specific performance under the Transaction Documents. The parties agree that monetary damages may not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of any breach of obligations contained in the Transaction Documents and hereby agree to waive and not to assert in any action for specific performance of any such obligation the defense that a remedy at law would be adequate.
7.12    Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc.    If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.
7.13    Construction. The parties agree that each of them and/or their respective counsel have reviewed and had an opportunity to revise the Transaction Documents and, therefore, the normal rule of construction to the effect that any ambiguities are to be resolved against the drafting party shall not be employed in the interpretation of the Transaction Documents or any amendments thereto. In addition, each and every reference to share prices and shares of Common Stock in any Transaction Document shall be subject to adjustment for reverse and forward stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations and other similar transactions of the Common Stock that occur after the date of this Agreement.
7.14    WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. IN ANY ACTION, SUIT, OR PROCEEDING IN ANY JURISDICTION BROUGHT BY ANY PARTY AGAINST ANY OTHER PARTY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, THE PARTIES EACH KNOWINGLY AND INTENTIONALLY, TO THE GREATEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, HEREBY ABSOLUTELY, UNCONDITIONALLY, IRREVOCABLY AND EXPRESSLY WAIVE FOREVER ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY.
(Signature Pages Follow)






If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Underwriters and the Company, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement among the Company and the several Underwriters in accordance with its terms.
 
Very truly yours,
 
YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Oliver P. Peoples
 
Name:
Name: Oliver P. Peoples
 
Title:
Title: President and Chief Executive Officer






Address for Notice:
 
19 Presidential Way
 
Woburn, Massachusetts 01801
 
Attn: Chief Executive Officer
 
 
 
Copy to:
 
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.
 
One Financial Center
 
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
 
Facsimile: (617) 542-2241
 
Attn: Megan Gates
 
 
 
Accepted on the date first above written.
 
LADENBURG THALMANN & CO. INC.
 
As the Representative of the several
 
Underwriters listed on Schedule I
 
By: Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.
 
 
 
By: /s/ Nicholas Stergis    
 
Name: Nicholas Stergis
 
Title: Managing Director
 
 
 
Address for Notice:
 
4400 Biscayne Boulevard, 14th Floor
 
Miami, Florida 33137
 
Attn: General Counsel
 
 
 
Copy to:
 
Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP
 
1345 Avenue of the Americas
 
New York, New York 10105
 
Facsimile: (212) 401-4741
 
Attn: Michael Nertney
 



















SCHEDULE I

SCHEDULE OF UNDERWRITERS


Underwriters
Closing Shares
Closing Preferred Shares
Closing Series A Warrants
Closing Series B Warrants
Closing Purchase Price
Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.
10,230,000
2,504
22,750,000
22,750,000
$4,186,000.00
Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. (Securities sold to Company insiders)
2,250,000
0
2,250,000
2,250,000
$436,500.00
Total
12,480,000
2,504
25,000,000
25,000,000
$4,622,500.00
            




Exhibit
Exhibit 3.1

YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
CERTIFICATE OF DESIGNATION OF PREFERENCES,
RIGHTS AND LIMITATIONS
OF
SERIES A CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK
PURSUANT TO SECTION 151 OF THE
DELAWARE GENERAL CORPORATION LAW
The undersigned, Oliver P. Peoples and Charles B. Haaser, do hereby certify that:
1.    They are the President and Assistant Secretary, respectively, of Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”).
2.    The Corporation is authorized to issue 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, none of which have been issued.
3.    The following resolutions were duly adopted by the board of directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”):
WHEREAS, the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation provides for a class of its authorized stock known as preferred stock, consisting of 5,000,000 shares, $0.01 par value per share, issuable from time to time in one or more series;
WHEREAS, the Board of Directors is authorized to fix the dividend rights, dividend rate, voting rights, conversion rights, rights and terms of redemption and liquidation preferences of any wholly unissued series of preferred stock and the number of shares constituting any series and the designation thereof, of any of them; and
WHEREAS, it is the desire of the Board of Directors, pursuant to its authority as aforesaid, to fix the rights, preferences, restrictions and other matters relating to a series of the preferred stock, which shall consist of, except as otherwise set forth in the Underwriting Agreement, up to 2,504 shares of the preferred stock which the Corporation has the authority to issue, as follows:
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that the Board of Directors does hereby provide for the issuance of a series of preferred stock for cash or exchange of other securities, rights or property and does hereby fix and determine the rights, preferences, restrictions and other matters relating to such series of preferred stock as follows:





TERMS OF PREFERRED STOCK
Section 1.    Definitions. For the purposes hereof, the following terms shall have the following meanings:
Affiliate” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Alternate Consideration” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).
Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d).
Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.
Buy-In” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c)(iv).
Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
Common Stock” means the Corporation’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and stock of any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.
Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Corporation or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, rights, options, warrants or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.
Conversion Amount” means the sum of the Stated Value at issue.
Conversion Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).
Conversion Price” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(b).
Conversion Shares” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof.
Equity Conditions” means, during the period in question, (a) the Corporation shall have duly honored all conversions scheduled to occur or occurring by virtue of one or more Notices of Conversion of the applicable Holder on or prior to the dates so requested or required, if any, (b) the Corporation shall have paid all liquidated damages and other amounts owing to the applicable Holder in respect of the Preferred Stock, (c)(i) there is an effective registration statement pursuant to which either (A) the Corporation may issue Conversion Shares or (B) the Holders are permitted to utilize the prospectus thereunder to resell all of the shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant

2



to the Transaction Documents (and the Corporation believes, in good faith, that such effectiveness will continue uninterrupted for the foreseeable future) or (ii) all of the Conversion Shares may be issued to the Holder pursuant to Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act and immediately resold without restriction, (d) the Common Stock is trading on a Trading Market and all of the shares issuable pursuant to the Transaction Documents are listed or quoted for trading on such Trading Market (and the Corporation believes, in good faith, that trading of the Common Stock on a Trading Market will continue uninterrupted for the foreseeable future), (e) there is a sufficient number of authorized, but unissued and otherwise unreserved, shares of Common Stock for the issuance of all of the shares then issuable pursuant to the Transaction Documents, (f) the issuance of the shares in question to the applicable Holder would not violate the limitations set forth in Section 6(d) herein and (g) the applicable Holder is not in possession of any information provided by the Corporation, any of its Subsidiaries, or any of their officers, directors, employees, agents or Affiliates, that constitutes, or may constitute, material non-public information.
Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Forced Conversion Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(e).
Forced Conversion Notice” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(e).
Forced Conversion Notice Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(e).
Fundamental Transaction” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).
GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.
Holder” shall have the meaning given such term in Section 2.
Liquidation” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.
“New York Courts” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 8(d).
Notice of Conversion” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).
Original Issue Date” means the date of the first issuance of any shares of the Preferred Stock regardless of the number of transfers of any particular shares of Preferred Stock and regardless of the number of certificates which may be issued to evidence such Preferred Stock.
Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.
Preferred Stock” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.
Representative” means Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

3



Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Share Delivery Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c).
Stated Value” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2, as the same may be increased pursuant to Section 3.
Successor Entity” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).
Trading Day” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for business.
Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).
Transfer Agent” means American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, the current transfer agent of the Corporation with a mailing address of 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, and a facsimile number of (718) 765-8712, and any successor transfer agent of the Corporation.
Underwriting Agreement” means the underwriting agreement, dated as of November 15, 2019, among the Corporation and the Representative, as representative of the underwriters named therein, as amended, modified or supplemented from time to time in accordance with its terms.
VWAP” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b)  if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Holders of a majority in interest of the Preferred Stock then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Corporation, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Corporation.
Section 2.    Designation, Amount and Par Value. The series of preferred stock shall be designated as the Corporation’s Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Preferred Stock”) and the number of shares so designated shall be up to 2,504 (which shall not be subject to increase without the written consent of all of the holders of the then-outstanding shares of Preferred Stock (each, a “Holder” and collectively, the “Holders”)). Each share of Preferred Stock shall have a par value of $0.01 per share and a stated value equal to $1,000, subject to increase set forth in Section

4



3 below (the “Stated Value”). The Preferred Stock will initially be issued in book-entry form and shall initially be represented only by one or more global certificates deposited with the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) and registered in the name of Cede & Co., a nominee of DTC, or as otherwise directed by DTC. In addition, a beneficial owner of Preferred Stock has the right, upon written notice by such beneficial owner to the Corporation, to request the exchange of some or all of such beneficial owner’s interest in Preferred Stock represented by one or more global Preferred Stock certificates deposited with Cede & Co. (or its successor) for a physical Preferred Stock certificate (a “Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice” and the date of delivery of such Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice by a beneficial owner, the “Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice Date” and the deemed surrender upon delivery by the beneficial owner of a number of global shares of Preferred Stock for the same number of shares of Preferred Stock represented by a physical stock certificate, a “Preferred Stock Exchange”, and such physical certificate(s), a “Preferred Stock Certificate”). Upon delivery of a Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice, the Corporation shall promptly effect the Preferred Stock Exchange and shall promptly issue and deliver to the beneficial owner a physical Preferred Stock Certificate for such number of shares of Preferred Stock represented by its interest in such global certificates in the name of the beneficial owner. Such Preferred Stock Certificate shall be dated the original issue date and shall be executed by an authorized signatory of the Corporation. In connection with a Preferred Stock Exchange, the Corporation agrees to deliver the Preferred Stock Certificate to the Holder within two (2) Business Days of the delivery of a properly completed and executed Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice pursuant to the delivery instructions in the Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice. The Corporation covenants and agrees that, upon the date of delivery of the properly completed and executed Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice, the Holder shall be deemed to be the holder of the Preferred Stock Certificate and further, for purposes of Regulation SHO, a Holder whose interest in this Preferred Stock is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing this Preferred Stock held in book-entry form through DTC shall be deemed to have converted its interest in this Preferred Stock upon instructing its broker that is a DTC participant to convert its interest in this Preferred Stock, and, notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth herein, the Preferred Stock Certificate shall be deemed for all purposes to represent all of the terms and conditions of the Preferred Stock evidenced by such global Preferred Stock certificates and the terms hereof.
Section 3.    Dividends. Except for stock dividends or distributions for which adjustments are to be made pursuant to Section 7, Holders shall be entitled to receive, and the Corporation shall pay, dividends on shares of Preferred Stock equal (on an as-if-converted-to-Common-Stock basis, disregarding for such purpose any conversion limitations hereunder) to and in the same form as dividends actually paid on shares of the Common Stock when, as and if such dividends are paid on shares of the Common Stock. No other dividends shall be paid on shares of Preferred Stock. The Corporation shall not pay any dividends on the Common Stock unless the Corporation simultaneously complies with this provision.
Section 4.    Voting Rights. Except as otherwise provided herein or as otherwise required by law, the Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Preferred Stock are outstanding, the Corporation shall not, without the affirmative vote of the Holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Preferred Stock, (a) alter or change adversely the powers, preferences or rights given to the Preferred Stock or alter or amend this Certificate of

5



Designation, (b) amend its certificate of incorporation or other charter documents in any manner that adversely affects any rights of the Holders, (c) increase the number of authorized shares of Preferred Stock, or (d) enter into any agreement with respect to any of the foregoing.
Section 5.     Liquidation. Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary (a “Liquidation”), the Holders shall be entitled to receive out of the assets, whether capital or surplus, of the Corporation the same amount that a holder of Common Stock would receive if the Preferred Stock were fully converted (disregarding for such purposes any conversion limitations hereunder) to Common Stock which amounts shall be paid pari passu with all holders of Common Stock. The Corporation shall mail written notice of any such Liquidation, not less than 45 days prior to the payment date stated therein, to each Holder.
Section 6.    Conversion.
a)    Conversions at Option of Holder. Each share of Preferred Stock shall be convertible, at any time and from time to time from and after the Original Issue Date at the option of the Holder thereof, into that number of shares of Common Stock (subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(d)) determined by dividing the Stated Value of such share of Preferred Stock by the Conversion Price. Holders shall effect conversions by providing the Corporation with the form of conversion notice attached hereto as Annex A (a “Notice of Conversion”). Each Notice of Conversion shall specify the number of shares of Preferred Stock to be converted, the number of shares of Preferred Stock owned prior to the conversion at issue, the number of shares of Preferred Stock owned subsequent to the conversion at issue and the date on which such conversion is to be effected, which date may not be prior to the date the applicable Holder delivers by facsimile or e-mail such Notice of Conversion to the Corporation (such date, the “Conversion Date”). If no Conversion Date is specified in a Notice of Conversion, the Conversion Date shall be the date that such Notice of Conversion to the Corporation is deemed delivered hereunder. No ink-original Notice of Conversion shall be required, nor shall any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Conversion form be required.The calculations and entries set forth in the Notice of Conversion shall control in the absence of manifest or mathematical error. To effect conversions of shares of Preferred Stock, a Holder shall not be required to surrender the certificate(s) representing the shares of Preferred Stock to the Corporation unless all of the shares of Preferred Stock represented thereby are so converted, in which case such Holder shall deliver the certificate representing such shares of Preferred Stock promptly following the Conversion Date at issue. Shares of Preferred Stock converted into Common Stock or redeemed in accordance with the terms hereof shall be canceled and shall not be reissued. Notwithstanding the foregoing in this Section 6(a), a holder whose interest in the Preferred Stock is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing the Preferred Stock held in book-entry form through DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect conversions made pursuant to this Section 6(a) by delivering to DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for conversion, complying with the procedures to effect conversions that are required by DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable), subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive Preferred Stock in certificated form pursuant to Section 2, in which case this sentence shall not apply, and, provided, however, as between the Corporation and a beneficial owner of Preferred

6



Stock held in book-entry form through DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) shall have all of the rights and remedies of a “Holder” hereunder.
b)    Conversion Price. The conversion price for the Preferred Stock shall equal $0.20, subject to adjustment as provided for herein (the “Conversion Price”).
c)    Mechanics of Conversion
i.    Delivery of Conversion Shares Upon Conversion. Not later than the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined below) after each Conversion Date (the “Share Delivery Date”), the Corporation shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the converting Holder (A) the number of Conversion Shares being acquired upon the conversion of the Preferred Stock, which Conversion Shares shall be free of restrictive legends and trading restrictions, and (B) a bank check in the amount of accrued and unpaid dividends, if any. The Corporation shall use its best efforts to deliver the Conversion Shares required to be delivered by the Corporation under this Section 6 electronically through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions. As used herein, “Standard Settlement Period” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Corporation’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Conversion. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any Notice(s) of Conversion delivered by 12:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Original Issue Date, the Corporation agrees to deliver the Conversion Shares subject to such notice(s) by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Original Issue Date, and the Original Issue Date being deemed the “Share Delivery Date” with respect to any Notice(s) of Conversion.
ii.    Failure to Deliver Conversion Shares. If, in the case of any Notice of Conversion, such Conversion Shares are not delivered to or as directed by the applicable Holder by the Share Delivery Date, the Holder shall be entitled to elect by written notice to the Corporation at any time on or before its receipt of such Conversion Shares, to rescind such Conversion, in which event the Corporation shall promptly return to the Holder any original Preferred Stock certificate delivered to the Corporation and the Holder shall promptly return to the Corporation the Conversion Shares issued to such Holder pursuant to the rescinded Notice of Conversion.
iii.    Obligation Absolute; Partial Liquidated Damages. The Corporation’s obligation to issue and deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof are absolute and unconditional, irrespective of any action or inaction by a Holder to enforce the same, any waiver or consent with respect to any provision hereof, the recovery of any judgment against any Person or any action to enforce the same, or any setoff, counterclaim, recoupment, limitation or termination, or any breach or alleged breach by such Holder or any other Person of any obligation to the Corporation or any violation or alleged violation of law by such Holder or any other person, and irrespective of any other circumstance which might otherwise limit such obligation of the Corporation to such Holder in connection with the issuance of such Conversion Shares; provided, however, that such delivery shall not operate as a waiver by the Corporation of any such action that the Corporation may have against such Holder. In the event a Holder shall elect to convert any or all of the Stated Value of its Preferred Stock, the Corporation

7



may not refuse conversion based on any claim that such Holder or any one associated or affiliated with such Holder has been engaged in any violation of law, agreement or for any other reason, unless an injunction from a court, on notice to Holder, restraining and/or enjoining conversion of all or part of the Preferred Stock of such Holder shall have been sought and obtained, and the Corporation posts a surety bond for the benefit of such Holder in the amount of 110% of the Stated Value of Preferred Stock which is subject to the injunction, which bond shall remain in effect until the completion of arbitration/litigation of the underlying dispute and the proceeds of which shall be payable to such Holder to the extent it obtains judgment. In the absence of such injunction, the Corporation shall issue Conversion Shares and, if applicable, cash, upon a properly noticed conversion. If the Corporation fails to deliver to a Holder such Conversion Shares pursuant to Section 6(c)(i) by the Share Delivery Date applicable to such conversion, the Corporation shall pay to such Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $5,000 of Stated Value of Preferred Stock being converted, $25 per Trading Day (increasing to $50 per Trading Day on the third Trading Day and increasing to $100 per Trading Day on the sixth Trading Day after such damages begin to accrue) for each Trading Day after the Share Delivery Date until such Conversion Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such conversion. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue actual damages for the Corporation’s failure to deliver Conversion Shares within the period specified herein and such Holder shall have the right to pursue all remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief. The exercise of any such rights shall not prohibit a Holder from seeking to enforce damages pursuant to any other Section hereof or under applicable law.
iv.    Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Conversion Shares Upon Conversion. In addition to any other rights available to the Holder, if the Corporation fails for any reason to deliver to a Holder the applicable Conversion Shares by the Share Delivery Date pursuant to Section 6(c)(i), and if after such Share Delivery Date such Holder is required by its brokerage firm to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise), or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by such Holder of the Conversion Shares which such Holder was entitled to receive upon the conversion relating to such Share Delivery Date (a “Buy-In”), then the Corporation shall (A) pay in cash to such Holder (in addition to any other remedies available to or elected by such Holder) the amount, if any, by which (x) such Holder’s total purchase price (including any brokerage commissions) for the Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the product of (1) the aggregate number of shares of Common Stock that such Holder was entitled to receive from the conversion at issue multiplied by (2) the actual sale price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed (including any brokerage commissions) and (B) at the option of such Holder, either reissue (if surrendered) the shares of Preferred Stock equal to the number of shares of Preferred Stock submitted for conversion (in which case, such conversion shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued if the Corporation had timely complied with its delivery requirements under Section 6(c)(i). For example, if a Holder purchases shares of Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted conversion of shares of Preferred Stock with respect to which the actual sale price of the Conversion Shares (including any brokerage commissions) giving rise to such purchase obligation was a total of $10,000 under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence, the Corporation shall be required to pay such Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Corporation

8



written notice indicating the amounts payable to such Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Corporation, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Corporation’s failure to timely deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of the shares of Preferred Stock as required pursuant to the terms hereof.
v.    Reservation of Shares Issuable Upon Conversion. The Corporation covenants that it will at all times reserve and keep available out of its authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock for the sole purpose of issuance upon conversion of the Preferred Stock as herein provided, free from preemptive rights or any other actual contingent purchase rights of Persons other than the Holder (and the other holders of the Preferred Stock), not less than such aggregate number of shares of the Common Stock as shall be issuable (taking into account the adjustments and restrictions of Section 7) upon the conversion of the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock. The Corporation covenants that all shares of Common Stock that shall be so issuable shall, upon issue, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.
vi.    Fractional Shares. No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the conversion of the Preferred Stock. As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to purchase upon such conversion, the Corporation shall round up to the next whole share.
vii.    Transfer Taxes and Expenses. The issuance of Conversion Shares on conversion of this Preferred Stock shall be made without charge to any Holder for any documentary stamp or similar taxes that may be payable in respect of the issue or delivery of such Conversion Shares, provided that the Corporation shall not be required to pay any tax that may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the issuance and delivery of any such Conversion Shares upon conversion in a name other than that of the Holders of such shares of Preferred Stock and the Corporation shall not be required to issue or deliver such Conversion Shares unless or until the Person or Persons requesting the issuance thereof shall have paid to the Corporation the amount of such tax or shall have established to the satisfaction of the Corporation that such tax has been paid. The Corporation shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Conversion and all fees to the Depository Trust Company (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Conversion Shares.
d)    Beneficial Ownership Limitation. The Corporation shall not effect any conversion of the Preferred Stock, and a Holder shall not have the right to convert any portion of the Preferred Stock, to the extent that, after giving effect to the conversion set forth on the applicable Notice of Conversion, such Holder (together with such Holder’s Affiliates, and any Persons acting as a group together with such Holder or any of such Holder’s Affiliates (such Persons, “Attribution Parties”)) would beneficially own in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below). For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by such Holder and its Affiliates and Attribution Parties shall include the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Preferred Stock with respect to which such

9



determination is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which are issuable upon (i) conversion of the remaining, unconverted Stated Value of Preferred Stock beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties and (ii) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or unconverted portion of any other securities of the Corporation subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein (including, without limitation, the Preferred Stock) beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties. Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 6(d), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Subject to a Holder’s right to rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as set forth below, the Corporation makes no representation to the Holder that its calculations are in compliance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and that the Holder is solely responsible for any schedules required to be filed in accordance therewith. To the extent that the limitation contained in this Section 6(d) applies, the determination of whether the Preferred Stock is convertible (in relation to other securities owned by such Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of how many shares of Preferred Stock are convertible shall be in the sole discretion of such Holder, and the submission of a Notice of Conversion shall be deemed to be such Holder’s determination of whether the shares of Preferred Stock may be converted (in relation to other securities owned by such Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and how many shares of the Preferred Stock are convertible, in each case subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation. To ensure compliance with this restriction, each Holder will be deemed to represent to the Corporation each time it delivers a Notice of Conversion that such Notice of Conversion has not violated the restrictions set forth in this paragraph and the Corporation shall have no obligation to verify or confirm the accuracy of such determination. In addition, a determination as to any group status as contemplated above shall be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this Section 6(d), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as stated in the most recent of the following: (i) the Corporation’s most recent periodic or annual report filed with the Commission, as the case may be, (ii) a more recent public announcement by the Corporation or (iii) a more recent written notice by the Corporation or the Transfer Agent setting forth the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding. Upon the written or oral request (which may be via email) of a Holder, the Corporation shall within one Trading Day confirm orally and in writing to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding. In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to the conversion or exercise of securities of the Corporation, including the Preferred Stock, by such Holder or its Affiliates or Attribution Parties since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was reported. The “Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall be 4.99% (or, upon election by a Holder prior to the issuance of any shares of Preferred Stock, 9.99%) of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of Preferred Stock held by the applicable Holder. A Holder, upon notice to the Corporation, may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation provisions of this Section 6(d) applicable to its Preferred Stock provided that the Beneficial Ownership Limitation in no event exceeds 9.99% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon conversion of this Preferred Stock held by the Holder and the provisions of this Section 6(d) shall

10



continue to apply. Any such increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until the 61st day after such notice is delivered to the Corporation and shall only apply to such Holder and no other Holder. The provisions of this paragraph shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this Section 6(d) to correct this paragraph (or any portion hereof) which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended Beneficial Ownership Limitation contained herein or to make changes or supplements necessary or desirable to properly give effect to such limitation. The limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply to a successor holder of Preferred Stock.
e)    Forced Conversion. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, if after the Original Issue Date, the VWAP during any 30 consecutive Trading Day period, which thirty (30) consecutive Trading Day period shall have commenced only after the Original Issue Date (the “Threshold Period”), exceeds $0.60 (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and the like after the Original Issue Date) and (ii) the daily dollar trading volume for such Threshold Period exceeds $175,000 per Trading Day, the Corporation may, within one (1) Trading Day after the end of any such Threshold Period, deliver a written notice to all Holders (a “Forced Conversion Notice” and the date such notice is delivered to all Holders, the “Forced Conversion Notice Date”) to cause each Holder to convert all or part of such Holder’s Preferred Stock (as specified in such Forced Conversion Notice) pursuant to Section 6, it being agreed that the “Conversion Date” for purposes of Section 6 shall be deemed to occur on the third Trading Day following the Forced Conversion Notice Date (such third Trading Day, the “Forced Conversion Date”). The Corporation may not deliver a Forced Conversion Notice, and any Forced Conversion Notice delivered by the Corporation shall not be effective, unless all of the Equity Conditions have been met on each Trading Day during the applicable Threshold Period through and including the later of the Forced Conversion Date and the Trading Day after the date that the Conversion Shares issuable pursuant to such conversion are actually delivered to the Holders pursuant to the Forced Conversion Notice. Any Forced Conversion Notices shall be applied ratably to all of the Holders based on the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock. For purposes of clarification, a Forced Conversion shall be subject to all of the provisions of Section 6, including, without limitation, the provisions requiring payment of liquidated damages and limitations on conversions.
Section 7.    Certain Adjustments.
a)    Stock Dividends and Stock Splits. If the Corporation, at any time while this Preferred Stock is outstanding: (i) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions payable in shares of Common Stock on shares of Common Stock or any other Common Stock Equivalents (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Corporation upon conversion of, or payment of a dividend on, this Preferred Stock), (ii) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares, (iii) combines (including by way of a reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, or (iv) issues, in the event of a reclassification of shares of the Common Stock, any shares of capital stock of the Corporation, then the Conversion Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) outstanding immediately before such event, and of which the

11



denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event. Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 7(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision, combination or re‑classification.
b)    Subsequent Rights Offerings. In addition to any adjustments pursuant to Section 7(a) above, if at any time the Corporation grants, issues or sells any Common Stock Equivalents or rights to purchase stock, warrants, securities or other property pro rata to the record holders of any class of shares of Common Stock (the “Purchase Rights”), then the Holder will be entitled to acquire, upon the terms applicable to such Purchase Rights, the aggregate Purchase Rights which the Holder could have acquired if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete conversion of such Holder’s Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date on which a record is taken for the grant, issuance or sale of such Purchase Rights, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the grant, issue or sale of such Purchase Rights (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Purchase Right would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Purchase Right to such extent (or beneficial ownership of such shares of Common Stock as a result of such Purchase Right to such extent) and such Purchase Right to such extent shall be held in abeyance for the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).
c)    Pro Rata Distributions. During such time as this Preferred Stock is outstanding, if the Corporation declares or makes any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “Distribution”), at any time after the issuance of this Preferred Stock, then, in each such case, the Holder shall be entitled to participate in such Distribution to the same extent that the Holder would have participated therein if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete conversion of this Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on conversion hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date of which a record is taken for such Distribution, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the participation in such Distribution (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Distribution would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Distribution to such extent (or in the beneficial ownership of any shares of Common Stock as a result of such Distribution to such extent) and the portion of such Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

12



d)    Fundamental Transaction. If, at any time while this Preferred Stock is outstanding, (i) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any merger or consolidation of the Corporation with or into another Person, (ii) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, effects any sale, lease, license, assignment, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of its assets in one or a series of related transactions, (iii) any, direct or indirect, purchase offer, tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Corporation or another Person) is completed pursuant to which holders of Common Stock are permitted to sell, tender or exchange their shares for other securities, cash or property and has been accepted by the holders of 50% or more of the outstanding Common Stock, (iv) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any reclassification, reorganization or recapitalization of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property, or (v) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions consummates a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off or scheme of arrangement) with another Person whereby such other Person acquires more than 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (not including any shares of Common Stock held by the other Person or other Persons making or party to, or associated or affiliated with the other Persons making or party to, such stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination) (each a “Fundamental Transaction”), then, upon any subsequent conversion of this Preferred Stock, the Holder shall have the right to receive, for each Conversion Share that would have been issuable upon such conversion immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 6(d) on the conversion of this Preferred Stock), the number of shares of Common Stock of the successor or acquiring corporation or of the Corporation, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration (the “Alternate Consideration”) receivable as a result of such Fundamental Transaction by a holder of the number of shares of Common Stock for which this Preferred Stock is convertible immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 6(d) on the conversion of this Preferred Stock). For purposes of any such conversion, the determination of the Conversion Price shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Corporation shall apportion the Conversion Price among the Alternate Consideration in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holder shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any conversion of this Preferred Stock following such Fundamental Transaction. To the extent necessary to effectuate the foregoing provisions, any successor to the Corporation or surviving entity in such Fundamental Transaction shall file a new Certificate of Designation with the same terms and conditions and issue to the Holders new preferred stock consistent with the foregoing provisions and evidencing the Holders’ right to convert such preferred stock into Alternate Consideration. The Corporation shall cause any successor entity in a Fundamental Transaction in which the Corporation is not the survivor (the “Successor Entity”) to assume in writing all of the obligations of the Corporation under this Certificate of Designation in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7(d) pursuant to written agreements in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Holder and approved by the Holder (without unreasonable delay) prior to such Fundamental Transaction and shall, at the option of the

13



Holder, deliver to the Holder in exchange for this Preferred Stock a security of the Successor Entity evidenced by a written instrument substantially similar in form and substance to this Preferred Stock which is convertible for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock of such Successor Entity (or its parent entity) equivalent to the shares of Common Stock acquirable and receivable upon conversion of this Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on the conversion of this Preferred Stock) prior to such Fundamental Transaction, and with a conversion price which applies the conversion price hereunder to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Fundamental Transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such number of shares of capital stock and such conversion price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of this Preferred Stock immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction), and which is reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Holder. Upon the occurrence of any such Fundamental Transaction, the Successor Entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such Fundamental Transaction, the provisions of this Certificate of Designation referring to the “Corporation” shall refer instead to the Successor Entity), and may exercise every right and power of the Corporation and shall assume all of the obligations of the Corporation under this Certificate of Designation with the same effect as if such Successor Entity had been named as the Corporation herein.
d)    Calculations. All calculations under this Section 7 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 7, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) issued and outstanding.
e)    Notice to the Holders.
i.    Adjustment to Conversion Price. Whenever the Conversion Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 7, the Corporation shall promptly deliver to each Holder by facsimile or email a notice setting forth the Conversion Price after such adjustment and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.
ii.    Notice to Allow Conversion by Holder. If (A) the Corporation shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Corporation shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Corporation shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock of rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Corporation shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Corporation is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Corporation, or any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property or (E) the Corporation shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Corporation, then, in each case, the Corporation shall cause to be filed at each office or agency maintained for the purpose of conversion of this Preferred Stock, and shall cause to be delivered by facsimile or email to each Holder at its last facsimile number or email

14



address as it shall appear upon the stock books of the Corporation, at least twenty (20) calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange, provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice. To the extent that any notice provided hereunder constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Corporation or any of the Subsidiaries, the Corporation shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Holder shall remain entitled to convert the Conversion Amount of this Preferred Stock (or any part hereof) during the 20-day period commencing on the date of such notice through the effective date of the event triggering such notice except as may otherwise be expressly set forth herein.
Section 8.    Miscellaneous.
a)    Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Conversion, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Corporation, at 19 Presidential Way, Woburn, Massachusetts 01801, Attention: Chief Executive Officer, facsimile number 781-933-3279, e-mail address peoples@yield10bio.com, or such other facsimile number, e-mail address or address as the Corporation may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders delivered in accordance with this Section 8. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Corporation hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile, or by e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the facsimile number, e-mail address or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Corporation. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section 8 prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the next Trading Day after the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (iii) the second Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given.
b)    Absolute Obligation. Except as expressly provided herein, no provision of this Certificate of Designation shall alter or impair the obligation of the Corporation, which is

15



absolute and unconditional, to pay liquidated damages, and accrued dividends, as applicable, on the shares of Preferred Stock at the time, place, and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.
c)    Lost or Mutilated Preferred Stock Certificate. If a Holder’s Preferred Stock certificate shall be mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, the Corporation shall execute and deliver, in exchange and substitution for and upon cancellation of a mutilated certificate, or in lieu of or in substitution for a lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, a new certificate for the shares of Preferred Stock so mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, but only upon receipt of evidence of such loss, theft or destruction of such certificate, and of the ownership thereof reasonably satisfactory to the Corporation.
d)    Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Certificate of Designation shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of Delaware, without regard to the principles of conflict of laws thereof. All legal proceedings concerning the interpretation, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Certificate of Designation (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective Affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, employees or agents) shall be commenced in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan (the “New York Courts”). The Corporation and each Holder hereby irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the New York Courts for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein, and hereby irrevocably waive, and agree not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that they are not personally subject to the jurisdiction of such New York Courts, or such New York Courts are improper or inconvenient venue for such proceeding. The Corporation and each Holder hereby irrevocably waive personal service of process and consent to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Certificate of Designation and agree that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by applicable law. The Corporation and each Holder hereto hereby irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Certificate of Designation or the transactions contemplated hereby. If the Corporation or any Holder shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provisions of this Certificate of Designation, then the prevailing party in such action or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred in the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.
e)    Waiver. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder of a breach of any provision of this Certificate of Designation shall not operate as or be construed to be a waiver of any other breach of such provision or of any breach of any other provision of this Certificate of Designation or a waiver by any other Holders. The failure of the Corporation or a Holder to insist upon strict adherence to any term of this Certificate of Designation on one or more occasions shall not be considered a waiver or deprive that party (or any other Holder) of the right thereafter to insist

16



upon strict adherence to that term or any other term of this Certificate of Designation on any other occasion. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder must be in writing.
f)    Severability. If any provision of this Certificate of Designation is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the balance of this Certificate of Designation shall remain in effect, and if any provision is inapplicable to any Person or circumstance, it shall nevertheless remain applicable to all other Persons and circumstances. If it shall be found that any interest or other amount deemed interest due hereunder violates the applicable law governing usury, the applicable rate of interest due hereunder shall automatically be lowered to equal the maximum rate of interest permitted under applicable law.
g)    Next Business Day. Whenever any payment or other obligation hereunder shall be due on a day other than a Business Day, such payment shall be made on the next succeeding Business Day.
h)    Headings. The headings contained herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Certificate of Designation and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.
i)    Status of Converted or Redeemed Preferred Stock. If any shares of Preferred Stock shall be converted, redeemed or reacquired by the Corporation, such shares shall resume the status of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock and shall no longer be designated as Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.
*********************


17



RESOLVED, FURTHER, that the Chairman, the president or any vice-president, and the secretary or any assistant secretary, of the Corporation be and they hereby are authorized and directed to prepare and file this Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations in accordance with the foregoing resolution and the provisions of Delaware law.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned have executed this Certificate this 18 day of November 2019.
/s/ Oliver P. Peoples
 
/s/ Charles B. Haaser
Name: Oliver P. Peoples
 
Name: Charles B. Haaser
Title: President
 
Title: Assistant Secretary





ANNEX A
NOTICE OF CONVERSION
(TO BE EXECUTED BY THE REGISTERED HOLDER IN ORDER TO CONVERT SHARES OF PREFERRED STOCK)
The undersigned hereby elects to convert the number of shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock indicated below into shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), of Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”), according to the conditions hereof, as of the date written below. If shares of Common Stock are to be issued in the name of a Person other than the undersigned, the undersigned will pay all transfer taxes payable with respect thereto. No fee will be charged to the Holders for any conversion, except for any such transfer taxes.
Conversion calculations:
Date to Effect Conversion: _____________________________________________
Number of shares of Preferred Stock owned prior to Conversion: _______________
Number of shares of Preferred Stock to be Converted: ________________________
Stated Value of shares of Preferred Stock to be Converted: ____________________
Number of shares of Common Stock to be Issued: ___________________________
Applicable Conversion Price:____________________________________________
Number of shares of Preferred Stock subsequent to Conversion: ________________
Address for Delivery: ______________________
or
DWAC Instructions:
Broker no: _________
Account no: ___________
HOLDER
By:     
Name:
Title:


Exhibit
Exhibit 3.2

YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
CERTIFICATE OF DESIGNATION OF PREFERENCES,
RIGHTS AND LIMITATIONS
OF
SERIES B CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK
PURSUANT TO SECTION 151 OF THE
DELAWARE GENERAL CORPORATION LAW
The undersigned, Oliver P. Peoples and Charles B. Haaser, do hereby certify that:
1.    They are the President and Assistant Secretary, respectively, of Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”).
2.    The Corporation is authorized to issue 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, none of which have been issued.
3.    The following resolutions were duly adopted by the board of directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”):
WHEREAS, the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation provides for a class of its authorized stock known as preferred stock, consisting of 5,000,000 shares, $0.01 par value per share, issuable from time to time in one or more series, of which 2,504 shares, $0.01 par value per share, are designated as Series A Convertible Preferred Stock;
WHEREAS, the Board of Directors is authorized to fix the dividend rights, dividend rate, voting rights, conversion rights, rights and terms of redemption and liquidation preferences of any wholly unissued series of preferred stock and the number of shares constituting any series and the designation thereof, of any of them; and
WHEREAS, it is the desire of the Board of Directors, pursuant to its authority as aforesaid, to fix the rights, preferences, restrictions and other matters relating to a series of the preferred stock, which shall consist of, except as otherwise set forth in the Underwriting Agreement, up to 5,750 shares of the preferred stock which the Corporation has the authority to issue, as follows:
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that the Board of Directors does hereby provide for the issuance of a series of preferred stock for cash or exchange of other securities, rights or property and does hereby fix and determine the rights, preferences, restrictions and other matters relating to such series of preferred stock as follows:
TERMS OF PREFERRED STOCK
Section 1.    Definitions. For the purposes hereof, the following terms shall have the following meanings:





Affiliate” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Alternate Consideration” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).
Amendment” means the amendment to the Corporation’s articles of incorporation that either effects a reverse stock split or increases the number of authorized shares of Common Stock in either case such that all of the Warrants may be exercised in full by the holders of the Warrants and all of the Preferred Stock may be converted by the holders of the Preferred Stock.
Authorized Share Increase Date” means, subject to Authorized Share Approval, the date on which the Amendment is filed and accepted with the State of Delaware.
Authorized Share Approval” means approval of the Amendment by the shareholders of the Corporation.
Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.
Buy-In” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c)(iv).
Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
Common Stock” means the Corporation’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and stock of any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.
Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Corporation or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, rights, options, warrants or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.
Conversion Amount” means the sum of the Stated Value at issue.
Conversion Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).
Conversion Price” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(b).
Conversion Shares” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof.
Deemed Liquidation” shall mean a consolidation or merger of the Corporation with or into any other person or persons, a statutory share exchange, the sale of all or substantially all of the Corporation’s assets or the sale of capital stock in one or more related transactions wherein the shareholders of the Corporation immediately prior to the effectiveness of such transaction or

2



transactions hold less than 50% of the capital stock of the Corporation or the surviving entity immediately after such transaction.
DGCL” shall mean the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Dividend Period” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4(a)(i).
Equity Conditions” means, during the period in question, (a) the Corporation shall have duly honored all conversions scheduled to occur or occurring by virtue of one or more Notices of Conversion of the applicable Holder on or prior to the dates so requested or required, if any, (b) the Corporation shall have paid all liquidated damages and other amounts owing to the applicable Holder in respect of the Preferred Stock, (c)(i) there is an effective registration statement pursuant to which either (A) the Corporation may issue Conversion Shares or (B) the Holders are permitted to utilize the prospectus thereunder to resell all of the shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to the Transaction Documents (and the Corporation believes, in good faith, that such effectiveness will continue uninterrupted for the foreseeable future) or (ii) all of the Conversion Shares may be issued to the Holder pursuant to Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act and immediately resold without restriction, (d) the Common Stock is trading on a Trading Market and all of the shares issuable pursuant to the Transaction Documents are listed or quoted for trading on such Trading Market (and the Corporation believes, in good faith, that trading of the Common Stock on a Trading Market will continue uninterrupted for the foreseeable future), (e) there is a sufficient number of authorized, but unissued and otherwise unreserved, shares of Common Stock for the issuance of all of the shares then issuable pursuant to the Transaction Documents, and (f) the applicable Holder is not in possession of any information provided by the Corporation, any of its Subsidiaries, or any of their officers, directors, employees, agents or Affiliates, that constitutes, or may constitute, material non-public information.
Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Forced Conversion Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d).
Forced Conversion Notice” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d).
Forced Conversion Notice Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d).
Fundamental Transaction” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).
GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.
Holder” shall have the meaning given such term in Section 2.
Initial Dividend Rate” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4(a)(i).
Junior Securities” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 10.
Liquidation” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.

3



New York Courts” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 8(d).
Notice of Conversion” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).
Optional Redemption Amount” means the sum of (a) 130% of the aggregate Stated Value then outstanding, (b) accrued but unpaid dividends and (c) all liquidated damages and other amounts due in respect of the Preferred Stock.
Original Issue Date” means the date of the first issuance of any shares of the Preferred Stock regardless of the number of transfers of any particular shares of Preferred Stock and regardless of the number of certificates which may be issued to evidence such Preferred Stock.
Parity Securities” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 10.
Participating Dividends” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(b).
Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.
Preferred Stock” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.
Redemption Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 9.
Redemption Price” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 9.
Regular Dividend Payment Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(a)(i).
Regular Dividends” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(a)(i).
Representative” means Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.
Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Senior Securities” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 10.
Series B Recapitalization Event” shall mean any stock dividend, stock split, combination, reorganization, recapitalization, reclassification, or other similar event involving a change in the capital structure of the Series B Preferred Stock.
Share Delivery Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c).
Stated Value” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2, as the same may be increased pursuant to Section 3.

4



subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, (a) a company a majority of whose capital stock with voting power, under ordinary circumstances, to elect directors is at the time, directly or indirectly, owned by such person, by a subsidiary of such person, or by such person and one or more subsidiaries of such person, (b) a partnership in which such person or a subsidiary of such person is, at the date of determination, a general partner of such partnership, or (c) any other person (other than a company) in which such person, a subsidiary of such person or such person and one or more subsidiaries of such person, directly or indirectly, at the date of determination thereof, has (i) at least a majority ownership interest, (ii) the power to elect or direct the election of the directors or other governing body of such person, or (iii) the power to direct or cause the direction of the affairs or management of such person. For purposes of this definition, a person is deemed to own any capital stock or other ownership interest if such person has the right to acquire such capital stock or other ownership interest, whether through the exercise of any purchase option, conversion privilege or similar right.
Subsidiary” shall mean a subsidiary of the Corporation.
Successor Entity” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).
Trading Day” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for business.
Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).
Transfer Agent” means American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, the current transfer agent of the Corporation with a mailing address of 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, and a facsimile number of (718) 765-8712, and any successor transfer agent of the Corporation.
Underwriting Agreement” means the underwriting agreement, dated as of November 15, 2019, among the Corporation and the Representative, as representative of the underwriters named therein, as amended, modified or supplemented from time to time in accordance with its terms.
VWAP” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b) if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by

5



the Holders of a majority in interest of the Preferred Stock then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Corporation, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Corporation.
Warrants” means, collectively, the Series A and the Series B Warrants issued pursuant to the Underwriting Agreement.
Section 2.    Designation, Amount and Par Value. The series of preferred stock shall be designated as the Corporation’s Series B Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Preferred Stock”) and the number of shares so designated shall be up to 5,750 (which shall not be subject to increase without the written consent of all of the holders of the then-outstanding shares of Preferred Stock (each, a “Holder” and collectively, the “Holders”)). Each share of Preferred Stock shall have a par value of $0.01 per share and a stated value equal to $1,000, subject to increase set forth in Section 3 below (the “Stated Value”). The Preferred Stock will initially be issued in book-entry form and shall initially be represented only by one or more global certificates deposited with the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) and registered in the name of Cede & Co., a nominee of DTC, or as otherwise directed by DTC. In addition, a beneficial owner of Preferred Stock has the right, upon written notice by such beneficial owner to the Corporation, to request the exchange of some or all of such beneficial owner’s interest in Preferred Stock represented by one or more global Preferred Stock certificates deposited with Cede & Co. (or its successor) for a physical Preferred Stock certificate (a “Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice” and the date of delivery of such Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice by a beneficial owner, the “Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice Date” and the deemed surrender upon delivery by the beneficial owner of a number of global shares of Preferred Stock for the same number of shares of Preferred Stock represented by a physical stock certificate, a “Preferred Stock Exchange”, and such physical certificate(s), a “Preferred Stock Certificate”). Upon delivery of a Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice, the Corporation shall promptly effect the Preferred Stock Exchange and shall promptly issue and deliver to the beneficial owner a physical Preferred Stock Certificate for such number of shares of Preferred Stock represented by its interest in such global certificates in the name of the beneficial owner. Such Preferred Stock Certificate shall be dated the original issue date and shall be executed by an authorized signatory of the Corporation. In connection with a Preferred Stock Exchange, the Corporation agrees to deliver the Preferred Stock Certificate to the Holder within two (2) Business Days of the delivery of a properly completed and executed Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice pursuant to the delivery instructions in the Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice. The Corporation covenants and agrees that, upon the date of delivery of the properly completed and executed Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice, the Holder shall be deemed to be the holder of the Preferred Stock Certificate and further, for purposes of Regulation SHO, a Holder whose interest in this Preferred Stock is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing this Preferred Stock held in book-entry form through DTC shall be deemed to have converted its interest in this Preferred Stock upon instructing its broker that is a DTC participant to convert its interest in this Preferred Stock, and, notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth herein, the Preferred Stock Certificate shall be deemed for all purposes to represent all of the terms and conditions of the Preferred Stock evidenced by such global Preferred Stock certificates and the terms hereof.
Section 3.    Dividends.

6



(a)    Dividend Amount.
(i)    Regular Dividends. In addition to any Participating Dividends (as described below) to which holders of Series B Preferred Stock may be entitled, the holders of the outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, for each share of Series B Preferred Stock, cumulative quarterly dividends at the quarterly rate that shall initially be 2.0% (the “Initial Dividend Rate”) of the sum of (A) the Stated Value plus (B) all accrued and unpaid Regular Dividends on such share of Series B Preferred Stock as of the first day of the applicable Dividend Period, in each case as adjusted for any stock dividends, splits, combinations and similar events (the “Regular Dividends”). Regular Dividends are payable in additional shares of Series B Preferred Stock. Regular Dividends will accrue on a daily basis and will be cumulative from the date of issuance and are payable quarterly in arrears on the last day of each of June, September, December and March (each such day, a “Regular Dividend Payment Date”), or, if such date is not a business day, the succeeding business day. The first “Dividend Period” begins on, and includes, March 31, 2020 and ends on, and includes the next succeeding Regular Dividend Payment Date, and each subsequent Dividend Period begins on, and includes, the day after a Regular Dividend Payment Date and ends on, and includes, the next succeeding Regular Dividend Payment Date. The Initial Dividend Rate will increase by 2.0% on each Regular Dividend Payment Date (e.g., to 4.0% on the first Regular Payment Date etc.) for so long as the Series B Preferred Stock remains outstanding. The amount of Regular Dividends payable for the initial dividend period, or any other dividend period shorter or longer than a full quarterly dividend period, will be computed on the basis of a quarter consisting of three 30-day months. Regular Dividends will be paid to the holders of record of Series B Preferred Stock as they appear in the records of the Corporation at the close of business on the 15th day of the calendar month in which the applicable Regular Dividend Payment Date falls or on such other date designated by the Board of Directors for the payment of Regular Dividends that is not more than sixty (60) days or less than ten (10) days prior to such Regular Dividend Payment Date. Any payment of a Regular Dividend will first be credited against the earliest accumulated but unpaid Regular Dividend due with respect to such share that remains payable.
(b)    Participating Dividends. If the Board of Directors shall declare a dividend or other distribution payable upon the then outstanding shares of Common Stock, whether in cash, in kind or in other securities or property, the holders of the outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock shall be entitled to the amount of dividends as would be payable in respect of the number of shares of Common Stock into which the shares of Series B Preferred Stock held by each holder thereof could be converted, without regard to any restrictions on conversion, in accordance with the provisions of Section 6 hereof, such number to be determined as of the record date for determination of holders of Common Stock entitled to receive such dividend or, if no such record date is established, as of the date of such dividend (“Participating Dividends”). Participating Dividends are payable at the same time as and when dividends on the Common Stock are paid to the holders of Common Stock.
(c)    Prior to declaring any dividend or making any distribution on or with respect to the shares of Series B Preferred Stock, the Corporation shall take all actions necessary or advisable under the DGCL to permit the payment of Regular Dividends and Participating Dividends to the holders of Series B Preferred Stock.

7



Section 4.    Voting Rights.
(a)    General. Except as otherwise provided herein or as otherwise required by law, the Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights.
(b)    Protective Provisions. The Corporation shall not, and shall not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, directly or indirectly, without the affirmative vote (or written consent as permitted by the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws) of the Holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock, voting (or consenting) as a separate class:
(i)    amend, alter, modify or repeal (whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise) this Certificate of Designations, the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws in any manner that adversely affects the rights, preferences, privileges or the restrictions provided for the benefit of, the Preferred Stock (in each case, including without limitation, changing the total number of Preferred Stock that the Corporation shall have the authority to issue);
(ii)    reclassify, alter or amend any securities of the Corporation or any Subsidiary in a manner that adversely affects the designations, preferences, powers and/or the relative participating, optional or other special rights, or the restrictions provided for the benefit of the Preferred Stock;
(iii)    in any manner authorize, create, designate, issue or sell any (A) class or series of capital stock (including shares of treasury stock) that would be classified as Senior Securities or Parity Securities or (B) rights, options, warrants or other securities (including debt securities) convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for capital stock or any equity security or having any other equity feature, in each case, that would be classified as either Senior Securities or Parity Securities, except as may be necessary in connection with the declaration and payment of in-kind dividends to holders of outstanding shares of Preferred Stock;
(iv)    modify in any material way the business of the Corporation or any of its Subsidiaries, including entering into a new line of business;
(v)    acquire or cause a Subsidiary to acquire, in any transaction or series of related transactions, the stock, business or material assets of any person or any business or assets of any person (in any such case, whether through the acquisition of securities, assets, or otherwise) where the consideration payable by the Corporation and or its Subsidiaries in connection with such acquisition (including any contingent or potential consideration), when taken together with all other consideration payable or paid by the Corporation and/or any of its Subsidiaries in connection with all other acquisitions (including contingent or potential consideration) by the Corporation and/or its Subsidiaries in the twelve (12) month period preceding the closing date of such acquisition, exceeds $1,000,000;
(vi)    sell, transfer, license, assign, lease mortgage, pledge, grant a security interest in or otherwise dispose of or encumber, in any transaction or series of related transactions, any capital stock or assets of the Corporation or any Subsidiary, outside the ordinary course of business;

8



(vii)    repay, repurchase or redeem any indebtedness except as required pursuant to the terms of such indebtedness;
(viii)    adopt a shareholder rights plan, or other anti-takeover plan or device;
(ix)    effect a Liquidation or Deemed Liquidation;
(x)    hire, terminate, increase the salary of or modify any other material employment terms of any member of senior management of the Corporation;
(xi)    incur or suffer to exist at any time, or permit the Corporation or any of the Corporation’s Subsidiaries to incur or suffer to exist at any time, any indebtedness in excess of $1,000,000;
(xii)    enter into, or become subject to, any agreement or instrument or other obligation which by its terms restricts the Corporation’s ability to perform its obligations under this Certificate of Designation, including the ability of the Corporation to pay dividends or make any redemption or other liquidation payment required hereunder;
(xiii)    purchase or redeem (or permit any subsidiary to purchase or redeem) or pay or declare any dividend, or make any distribution on, any shares of capital stock of the Corporation, other than redemptions of or dividends or distributions on the Preferred Stock as expressly authorized herein; or
(xiv)    enter into any agreement to do any of the foregoing that is not expressly made conditional on obtaining the affirmative vote or written consent of the Requisite Holders.
Section 5.    Liquidation Preference.
(a)    Liquidation Preference of Series B Preferred Stock. Subject to Section 5(b) below, in the event of any liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of the Corporation whether voluntary or involuntary, or in the event of its insolvency (a “Liquidation”), the holders of Series B Preferred Stock shall be entitled to have set apart for them, or to be paid, out of the assets of the Corporation available for distribution to stockholders (whether such assets are capital, surplus or earnings) after provision for payment of all debts and liabilities of the Corporation in accordance with the DGCL, before any distribution or payment is made with respect to any shares of Junior Securities and subject to the liquidation rights and preferences of any class or series of Senior Securities and Parity Securities, an amount equal to the greater of (i) the Stated Value per share of Series B Preferred Stock (which amount shall be subject to an equitable adjustment in the event of any Series B Recapitalization Event) plus the amount of all accrued and unpaid Regular Dividends thereon, whether or not declared, up to and including the date full payment shall be tendered to the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock with respect to such Liquidation and (ii) such amount as would have been payable on the number of shares of Common Stock into which the shares of Series B Preferred Stock held by each holder thereof could have been converted immediately prior to such Liquidation in accordance with the provisions of Section 6 hereof.

9



(b)    Deemed Liquidation. In the event of a Deemed Liquidation, the holders of Series B Preferred Stock shall be entitled to have set apart for them, or to be paid, out of the assets of the Corporation available for distribution to stockholders (whether such assets are capital, surplus or earnings) after provision for payment of all debts and liabilities of the Corporation in accordance with the DGCL, before any distribution or payment is made with respect to any shares of Junior Securities and subject to the liquidation rights and preferences of any class or series of Senior Securities and Parity Securities, an amount equal to the greater of (i) 200% of the sum of (A) the Stated Value per share of Series B Preferred Stock (which amount shall be subject to an equitable adjustment in the event of any Series B Recapitalization Event) plus (B) the amount of all accrued and unpaid Regular Dividends thereon, whether or not earned or declared, up to and including the date full payment shall be tendered to the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock with respect to such Liquidation and (ii) such amount as would have been payable on the number of shares of Common Stock into which the shares of Series B Preferred Stock held by each holder thereof could have been converted immediately prior to such Liquidation in accordance with the provisions of Section 6 hereto.
(c)    Insufficient Assets. If, upon any Liquidation or Deemed Liquidation, the assets legally available for distribution among the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock and any Parity Securities of the Corporation shall be insufficient to permit payment to such holders of the full preferential amounts as provided for in Section 5(a) above, then such holders shall share ratably in any distribution of available assets according to the respective amounts which would otherwise be payable with respect to the securities held by them upon such liquidating distribution if all amounts payable on or with respect to such securities were paid in full, based upon the aggregate liquidation value payable upon all shares of Series B Preferred Stock and any Parity Securities then outstanding.
(d)    Distribution to Junior Securities. After such payment shall have been made in full to the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock, or funds necessary for such payment shall have been set aside by the Corporation in trust for the account of holders of the Series B Preferred Stock so as to be available for such payment, the remaining assets available for distribution shall be distributed ratably among the holders of the Junior Securities in accordance with the terms of such securities.
(e)    Distributions Other than Cash. Whenever the distribution provided for in this Section 5 shall be payable in property other than cash, the value of such distribution shall be the Fair Market Value thereof. All distributions (including distributions other than cash) made hereunder shall be made pro rata to the holders of Series B Preferred Stock.
(f)    Equitable Adjustments. The amounts to be paid or set aside for payment as provided above in this Section 5 shall be proportionately increased or decreased in inverse relation to the change in the number of outstanding shares resulting from any Series B Recapitalization Event.
Section 6. Conversion.

10



(a)    Conversions. Prior to the Authorized Share Increase Date, the Preferred Stock is non-convertible. On the Authorized Share Increase Date, each share of Preferred Stock shall automatically convert into that number of shares of Common Stock determined by dividing the Stated Value of such share of Preferred Stock by the Conversion Price.
b)    Conversion Price. The conversion price for the Preferred Stock shall equal $0.20, subject to adjustment as provided for herein (the “Conversion Price”).
b)    Mechanics of Conversion
i.    Delivery of Conversion Shares Upon Conversion. Not later than the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined below) after the Conversion Date (the “Share Delivery Date”), the Corporation shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the converting Holder (A) the number of Conversion Shares being acquired upon the conversion of the Preferred Stock, which Conversion Shares shall be free of restrictive legends and trading restrictions, and (B) a bank check in the amount of accrued and unpaid dividends, if any. The Corporation shall use its best efforts to deliver the Conversion Shares required to be delivered by the Corporation under this Section 6 electronically through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions. As used herein, “Standard Settlement Period” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Corporation’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Conversion.
ii.    Failure to Deliver Conversion Shares. If, in the case of any Notice of Conversion, such Conversion Shares are not delivered to or as directed by the applicable Holder by the Share Delivery Date, the Holder shall be entitled to elect by written notice to the Corporation at any time on or before its receipt of such Conversion Shares, to rescind such Conversion, in which event the Corporation shall promptly return to the Holder any original Preferred Stock certificate delivered to the Corporation and the Holder shall promptly return to the Corporation the Conversion Shares issued to such Holder pursuant to the rescinded Notice of Conversion.
iii.    Obligation Absolute; Partial Liquidated Damages. The Corporation’s obligation to issue and deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof are absolute and unconditional, irrespective of any action or inaction by a Holder to enforce the same, any waiver or consent with respect to any provision hereof, the recovery of any judgment against any Person or any action to enforce the same, or any setoff, counterclaim, recoupment, limitation or termination, or any breach or alleged breach by such Holder or any other Person of any obligation to the Corporation or any violation or alleged violation of law by such Holder or any other person, and irrespective of any other circumstance which might otherwise limit such obligation of the Corporation to such Holder in connection with the issuance of such Conversion Shares; provided, however, that such delivery shall not operate as a waiver by the Corporation of any such action that the Corporation may have against such Holder. In the event a Holder shall elect to convert any or all of the Stated Value of its Preferred Stock, the Corporation may not refuse conversion based on any claim that such Holder or any one associated or affiliated with such Holder has been engaged in any violation of law, agreement or for any other reason, unless an injunction from a court, on notice to Holder, restraining and/or enjoining conversion of

11



all or part of the Preferred Stock of such Holder shall have been sought and obtained, and the Corporation posts a surety bond for the benefit of such Holder in the amount of 110% of the Stated Value of Preferred Stock which is subject to the injunction, which bond shall remain in effect until the completion of arbitration/litigation of the underlying dispute and the proceeds of which shall be payable to such Holder to the extent it obtains judgment. In the absence of such injunction, the Corporation shall issue Conversion Shares and, if applicable, cash, upon a properly noticed conversion. If the Corporation fails to deliver to a Holder such Conversion Shares pursuant to Section 6(c)(i) by the Share Delivery Date applicable to such conversion, the Corporation shall pay to such Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $5,000 of Stated Value of Preferred Stock being converted, $25 per Trading Day (increasing to $50 per Trading Day on the third Trading Day and increasing to $100 per Trading Day on the sixth Trading Day after such damages begin to accrue) for each Trading Day after the Share Delivery Date until such Conversion Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such conversion. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue actual damages for the Corporation’s failure to deliver Conversion Shares within the period specified herein and such Holder shall have the right to pursue all remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief. The exercise of any such rights shall not prohibit a Holder from seeking to enforce damages pursuant to any other Section hereof or under applicable law.
iv.    Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Conversion Shares Upon Conversion. In addition to any other rights available to the Holder, if the Corporation fails for any reason to deliver to a Holder the applicable Conversion Shares by the Share Delivery Date pursuant to Section 6(c)(i), and if after such Share Delivery Date such Holder is required by its brokerage firm to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise), or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by such Holder of the Conversion Shares which such Holder was entitled to receive upon the conversion relating to such Share Delivery Date (a “Buy-In”), then the Corporation shall (A) pay in cash to such Holder (in addition to any other remedies available to or elected by such Holder) the amount, if any, by which (x) such Holder’s total purchase price (including any brokerage commissions) for the Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the product of (1) the aggregate number of shares of Common Stock that such Holder was entitled to receive from the conversion at issue multiplied by (2) the actual sale price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed (including any brokerage commissions) and (B) at the option of such Holder, either reissue (if surrendered) the shares of Preferred Stock equal to the number of shares of Preferred Stock submitted for conversion (in which case, such conversion shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued if the Corporation had timely complied with its delivery requirements under Section 6(c)(i). For example, if a Holder purchases shares of Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted conversion of shares of Preferred Stock with respect to which the actual sale price of the Conversion Shares (including any brokerage commissions) giving rise to such purchase obligation was a total of $10,000 under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence, the Corporation shall be required to pay such Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Corporation written notice indicating the amounts payable to such Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Corporation, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without

12



limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Corporation’s failure to timely deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of the shares of Preferred Stock as required pursuant to the terms hereof.
v.    Reservation of Shares Issuable Upon Conversion. The Corporation covenants that it will at all times reserve and keep available out of its authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock for the sole purpose of issuance upon conversion of the Preferred Stock as herein provided, free from preemptive rights or any other actual contingent purchase rights of Persons other than the Holder (and the other holders of the Preferred Stock), not less than such aggregate number of shares of the Common Stock as shall be issuable (taking into account the adjustments and restrictions of Section 7) upon the conversion of the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock. The Corporation covenants that all shares of Common Stock that shall be so issuable shall, upon issue, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.
vi.    Fractional Shares. No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the conversion of the Preferred Stock. As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to purchase upon such conversion, the Corporation shall round up to the next whole share.
vii.    Transfer Taxes and Expenses. The issuance of Conversion Shares on conversion of this Preferred Stock shall be made without charge to any Holder for any documentary stamp or similar taxes that may be payable in respect of the issue or delivery of such Conversion Shares, provided that the Corporation shall not be required to pay any tax that may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the issuance and delivery of any such Conversion Shares upon conversion in a name other than that of the Holders of such shares of Preferred Stock and the Corporation shall not be required to issue or deliver such Conversion Shares unless or until the Person or Persons requesting the issuance thereof shall have paid to the Corporation the amount of such tax or shall have established to the satisfaction of the Corporation that such tax has been paid. The Corporation shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Conversion and all fees to the Depository Trust Company (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Conversion Shares.
c)    Forced Conversion. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, if after the Original Issue Date, the VWAP during any 30 consecutive Trading Day period, which thirty (30) consecutive Trading Day period shall have commenced only after the Original Issue Date (the “Threshold Period”), exceeds $0.60 (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and the like after the Original Issue Date) and (ii) the daily dollar trading volume for such Threshold Period exceeds $175,000 per Trading Day, the Corporation may, within one (1) Trading Day after the end of any such Threshold Period, deliver a written notice to all Holders (a “Forced Conversion Notice” and the date such notice is delivered to all Holders, the “Forced Conversion Notice Date”) to cause each Holder to convert all or part of such Holder’s Preferred Stock (as specified in such Forced Conversion Notice) pursuant to Section 6, it being agreed that the “Conversion Date” for purposes of Section 6 shall be deemed to occur on the third Trading Day following the Forced Conversion Notice Date (such third Trading Day, the “Forced

13



Conversion Date”). The Corporation may not deliver a Forced Conversion Notice, and any Forced Conversion Notice delivered by the Corporation shall not be effective, unless all of the Equity Conditions have been met on each Trading Day during the applicable Threshold Period through and including the later of the Forced Conversion Date and the Trading Day after the date that the Conversion Shares issuable pursuant to such conversion are actually delivered to the Holders pursuant to the Forced Conversion Notice. Any Forced Conversion Notices shall be applied ratably to all of the Holders based on the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock. For purposes of clarification, a Forced Conversion shall be subject to all of the provisions of Section 6, including, without limitation, the provisions requiring payment of liquidated damages and limitations on conversions.
d)    Optional Redemption at Election of Corporation. Subject to the provisions of this Section 6, at any time after the Original Issue Date, the Corporation may deliver a notice to the Holders (an “Optional Redemption Notice” and the date such notice is deemed delivered hereunder, the “Optional Redemption Notice Date”) of its irrevocable election to redeem some or all of the then outstanding Preferred Stock, for cash in an amount equal to the Optional Redemption Amount on the 20th Trading Day following the Optional Redemption Notice Date (such date, the “Optional Redemption Date” and such redemption, the “Optional Redemption”). The Optional Redemption Amount is payable in full on the Optional Redemption Date. The Corporation may only effect an Optional Redemption if each of the Equity Conditions shall have been met on each Trading Day occurring during the period commencing on the Optional Redemption Notice Date through to the Optional Redemption Date and through and including the date payment of the Optional Redemption Amount is actually made. If any of the Equity Conditions shall cease to be satisfied at any time during the 20 Trading Day period, then a Holder may elect to nullify the Optional Redemption Notice as to such Holder by notice to the Corporation within three (3) Trading Days after the first day on which any such Equity Condition has not been met (provided that if, by a provision of the Transaction Documents, the Corporation is obligated to notify the Holders of the non-existence of an Equity Condition, such notice period shall be extended to the third Trading Day after proper notice from the Corporation) in which case the Optional Redemption Notice shall be null and void, abinitio. The Corporation covenants and agrees that it will honor all Notices of Conversion tendered from the time of delivery of the Optional Redemption Notice through the date the Optional Redemption Amount is paid in full.
Section 7. Certain Adjustments.
a)    Stock Dividends and Stock Splits. If the Corporation, at any time while this Preferred Stock is outstanding: (i) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions payable in shares of Common Stock on shares of Common Stock or any other Common Stock Equivalents (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Corporation upon conversion of, or payment of a dividend on, this Preferred Stock), (ii) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares, (iii) combines (including by way of a reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, or (iv) issues, in the event of a reclassification of shares of the Common Stock, any shares of capital stock of the Corporation, then the Conversion Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any

14



treasury shares of the Corporation) outstanding immediately before such event, and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event. Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 7(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision, combination or re‑classification.
b)    Subsequent Rights Offerings. In addition to any adjustments pursuant to Section 7(a) above, if at any time the Corporation grants, issues or sells any Common Stock Equivalents or rights to purchase stock, warrants, securities or other property pro rata to the record holders of any class of shares of Common Stock (the “Purchase Rights”), then the Holder will be entitled to acquire, upon the terms applicable to such Purchase Rights, the aggregate Purchase Rights which the Holder could have acquired if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete conversion of such Holder’s Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date on which a record is taken for the grant, issuance or sale of such Purchase Rights, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the grant, issue or sale of such Purchase Rights (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Purchase Right would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Purchase Right to such extent (or beneficial ownership of such shares of Common Stock as a result of such Purchase Right to such extent) and such Purchase Right to such extent shall be held in abeyance for the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).
c)    Pro Rata Distributions. During such time as this Preferred Stock is outstanding, if the Corporation declares or makes any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “Distribution”), at any time after the issuance of this Preferred Stock, then, in each such case, the Holder shall be entitled to participate in such Distribution to the same extent that the Holder would have participated therein if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete conversion of this Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on conversion hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date of which a record is taken for such Distribution, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the participation in such Distribution (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Distribution would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Distribution to such extent (or in the beneficial ownership of any shares of Common Stock as a result of such Distribution to such extent) and the portion of such Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

15



d)    Fundamental Transaction. If, at any time while this Preferred Stock is outstanding, (i) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any merger or consolidation of the Corporation with or into another Person, (ii) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, effects any sale, lease, license, assignment, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of its assets in one or a series of related transactions, (iii) any, direct or indirect, purchase offer, tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Corporation or another Person) is completed pursuant to which holders of Common Stock are permitted to sell, tender or exchange their shares for other securities, cash or property and has been accepted by the holders of 50% or more of the outstanding Common Stock, (iv) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any reclassification, reorganization or recapitalization of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property, or (v) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions consummates a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off or scheme of arrangement) with another Person whereby such other Person acquires more than 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (not including any shares of Common Stock held by the other Person or other Persons making or party to, or associated or affiliated with the other Persons making or party to, such stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination) (each a “Fundamental Transaction”), then, upon any subsequent conversion of this Preferred Stock, the Holder shall have the right to receive, for each Conversion Share that would have been issuable upon such conversion immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction, the number of shares of Common Stock of the successor or acquiring corporation or of the Corporation, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration (the “Alternate Consideration”) receivable as a result of such Fundamental Transaction by a holder of the number of shares of Common Stock for which this Preferred Stock is convertible immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction. For purposes of any such conversion, the determination of the Conversion Price shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Corporation shall apportion the Conversion Price among the Alternate Consideration in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holder shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any conversion of this Preferred Stock following such Fundamental Transaction. To the extent necessary to effectuate the foregoing provisions, any successor to the Corporation or surviving entity in such Fundamental Transaction shall file a new Certificate of Designation with the same terms and conditions and issue to the Holders new preferred stock consistent with the foregoing provisions and evidencing the Holders’ right to convert such preferred stock into Alternate Consideration. The Corporation shall cause any successor entity in a Fundamental Transaction in which the Corporation is not the survivor (the “Successor Entity”) to assume in writing all of the obligations of the Corporation under this Certificate of Designation in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7(d) pursuant to written agreements in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Holder and approved by the Holder (without unreasonable delay) prior to such Fundamental Transaction and shall, at the option of the Holder, deliver to the Holder in exchange for this Preferred Stock a security of the Successor Entity evidenced by a written instrument substantially similar in form and substance to this Preferred Stock

16



which is convertible for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock of such Successor Entity (or its parent entity) equivalent to the shares of Common Stock acquirable and receivable upon conversion of this Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on the conversion of this Preferred Stock) prior to such Fundamental Transaction, and with a conversion price which applies the conversion price hereunder to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Fundamental Transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such number of shares of capital stock and such conversion price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of this Preferred Stock immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction), and which is reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Holder. Upon the occurrence of any such Fundamental Transaction, the Successor Entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such Fundamental Transaction, the provisions of this Certificate of Designation referring to the “Corporation” shall refer instead to the Successor Entity), and may exercise every right and power of the Corporation and shall assume all of the obligations of the Corporation under this Certificate of Designation with the same effect as if such Successor Entity had been named as the Corporation herein.
e)    Calculations. All calculations under this Section 7 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 7, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) issued and outstanding.
f)    Notice to the Holders.
i.    Adjustment to Conversion Price. Whenever the Conversion Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 7, the Corporation shall promptly deliver to each Holder by facsimile or email a notice setting forth the Conversion Price after such adjustment and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.
ii.    Notice to Allow Conversion by Holder. If (A) the Corporation shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Corporation shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Corporation shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock of rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Corporation shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Corporation is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Corporation, or any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property or (E) the Corporation shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Corporation, then, in each case, the Corporation shall cause to be filed at each office or agency maintained for the purpose of conversion of this Preferred Stock, and shall cause to be delivered by facsimile or email to each Holder at its last facsimile number or email address as it shall appear upon the stock books of the Corporation, at least twenty (20) calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption,

17



rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange, provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice. To the extent that any notice provided hereunder constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Corporation or any of the Subsidiaries, the Corporation shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Holder shall remain entitled to convert the Conversion Amount of this Preferred Stock (or any part hereof) during the 20-day period commencing on the date of such notice through the effective date of the event triggering such notice except as may otherwise be expressly set forth herein.
Section 8. Miscellaneous.
a)    Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Conversion, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Corporation, at 19 Presidential Way, Woburn, Massachusetts 01801, Attention: Chief Executive Officer, facsimile number 781-933-3279, e-mail address peoples@yield10bio.com, or such other facsimile number, e-mail address or address as the Corporation may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders delivered in accordance with this Section 8. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Corporation hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile, or by e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the facsimile number, e-mail address or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Corporation. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section 8 prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the next Trading Day after the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (iii) the second Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given.
b)    Absolute Obligation. Except as expressly provided herein, no provision of this Certificate of Designation shall alter or impair the obligation of the Corporation, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay liquidated damages, and accrued dividends, as applicable, on the shares of Preferred Stock at the time, place, and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

18



c)    Lost or Mutilated Preferred Stock Certificate. If a Holder’s Preferred Stock certificate shall be mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, the Corporation shall execute and deliver, in exchange and substitution for and upon cancellation of a mutilated certificate, or in lieu of or in substitution for a lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, a new certificate for the shares of Preferred Stock so mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, but only upon receipt of evidence of such loss, theft or destruction of such certificate, and of the ownership thereof reasonably satisfactory to the Corporation.
d)    Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Certificate of Designation shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of Delaware, without regard to the principles of conflict of laws thereof. All legal proceedings concerning the interpretation, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Certificate of Designation (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective Affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, employees or agents) shall be commenced in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan (the “New York Courts”). The Corporation and each Holder hereby irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the New York Courts for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein, and hereby irrevocably waive, and agree not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that they are not personally subject to the jurisdiction of such New York Courts, or such New York Courts are improper or inconvenient venue for such proceeding. The Corporation and each Holder hereby irrevocably waive personal service of process and consent to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Certificate of Designation and agree that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by applicable law. The Corporation and each Holder hereto hereby irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Certificate of Designation or the transactions contemplated hereby. If the Corporation or any Holder shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provisions of this Certificate of Designation, then the prevailing party in such action or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred in the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.
e)    Waiver. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder of a breach of any provision of this Certificate of Designation shall not operate as or be construed to be a waiver of any other breach of such provision or of any breach of any other provision of this Certificate of Designation or a waiver by any other Holders. The failure of the Corporation or a Holder to insist upon strict adherence to any term of this Certificate of Designation on one or more occasions shall not be considered a waiver or deprive that party (or any other Holder) of the right thereafter to insist upon strict adherence to that term or any other term of this Certificate of Designation on any other occasion. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder must be in writing.

19



f)    Severability. If any provision of this Certificate of Designation is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the balance of this Certificate of Designation shall remain in effect, and if any provision is inapplicable to any Person or circumstance, it shall nevertheless remain applicable to all other Persons and circumstances. If it shall be found that any interest or other amount deemed interest due hereunder violates the applicable law governing usury, the applicable rate of interest due hereunder shall automatically be lowered to equal the maximum rate of interest permitted under applicable law.
g)    Next Business Day. Whenever any payment or other obligation hereunder shall be due on a day other than a Business Day, such payment shall be made on the next succeeding Business Day.
h)    Headings. The headings contained herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Certificate of Designation and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.
i)    Status of Converted or Redeemed Preferred Stock. If any shares of Preferred Stock shall be converted, redeemed or reacquired by the Corporation, such shares shall resume the status of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock and shall no longer be designated as Series B Convertible Preferred Stock.
Section 9.    Redemption of Series B Preferred Stock.
a)    Redemption at the Election of Holders of Series B Preferred Stock. At any time on or after the twelve (12) month anniversary of the Initial Issue Date, the Requisite Holders may elect, by delivering an irrevocable written notice to the Corporation, to have the Corporation redeem all or any portion of the Series B Preferred Stock held by such holder at a price per share (the “Redemption Price”) equal to the Stated Value per share plus an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid Regular Dividends thereon to the date of such notice. The Corporation shall, unless otherwise prevented by law, redeem from such holder on the Redemption Date the number of shares of Series B Preferred Stock identified in such notice of election.
b.)    Redemption Closing. The closing of the Corporation’s redemption of the Series B Preferred Stock pursuant to this Section 9 shall take place at 11:00 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on the date that is no later than five (5) business days following the determination of the Redemption Price pursuant to Section 7(a) (the “Redemption Date”) at the Corporation’s principal executive office or other mutually agreed upon location where the closing will occur. At the closing, the Corporation shall pay to each holder of Series B Preferred Stock from whom shares of Series B Preferred Stock are being redeemed an amount equal to the aggregate applicable Redemption Price for all such shares against receipt from such holder of the certificate or certificates, duly endorsed or assigned to the Corporation in blank, representing the shares of Series B Preferred Stock being redeemed. All such payments shall be made by wire transfer of immediately available funds or, if any such holder shall not have specified wire transfer instructions to the Corporation prior to the closing, by certified or official bank check payable to the order of the holder. In the case of any certificate evidencing shares of Series B Preferred Stock that is redeemed in part only,

20



upon such redemption the Corporation shall also execute and deliver a new certificate evidencing the number of shares of Series B Preferred Stock that are not redeemed.
c.)    Insufficient Funds. If the Corporation shall not be permitted, or shall not have funds legally available in the amount necessary, to redeem all shares of Series B Preferred Stock to be redeemed on the applicable Redemption Date, then the Series B Preferred Stock shall be redeemed by the Corporation on such Redemption Date to the maximum extent the Corporation is permitted and has funds legally available on a pro rata basis, in accordance with the number of shares to be redeemed from each such holder of Series B Preferred Stock. The Corporation shall immediately redeem such shares of Series B Preferred Stock upon the termination of such legal prohibition and at any time thereafter when additional funds of the Corporation are legally available for the redemption of such shares of Series B Preferred Stock, such funds will be used, at the end of the next succeeding fiscal quarter, to redeem the balance of such shares, or such portion thereof for which funds are then legally available, on the basis set forth above.
d.)    Effect of Redemption. From and after the close of business on the applicable Redemption Date, unless there shall have been a default in the payment of the Redemption Price, all rights (except the right to receive the Redemption Price) of the holders of Series B Preferred Stock with respect to the shares of Series B Preferred Stock to be redeemed on such date shall cease and terminate, and such shares shall not thereafter be transferred on the books of the Corporation or be deemed to be outstanding for any purpose whatsoever whether or not the certificates representing such shares have been received by the Corporation; provided, however, that, notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, (A) if the Corporation defaults in the payment of the Redemption Price, the rights of such holders with respect to such shares of Series B Preferred Stock shall continue until the Corporation cures such default, and (B) without limiting any other rights of such holders, upon the occurrence of a subsequent Liquidation or Deemed Liquidation, with respect to the shares of Series B Preferred Stock in respect of which the payment of the Redemption Price has not occurred, such holders shall be accorded the Liquidation rights set forth in Section 5 hereof in respect of such remaining shares, as if no prior redemption request had been made. The shares of Series B Preferred Stock not redeemed shall remain outstanding and entitled to all rights and preferences provided herein.
e.    Miscellaneous. Neither the Corporation nor any Subsidiary shall offer to purchase, redeem or acquire any shares of Series B Preferred Stock other than pursuant to the terms of this Certificate of Designations or pursuant to a purchase offer made to all holders of Series B Preferred Stock prorata based upon the number of such shares owned by each such holder.
Section 10. Ranking.
For purposes of this Certificate of Designation, any stock of any class or classes of the Corporation shall be deemed to rank: (1) prior to the shares of Series B Preferred Stock, either as to dividends or upon liquidation, if the holders of such class or classes shall be entitled to the receipt of dividends or of amounts distributable upon dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Corporation, as the case may be, in preference or priority to the holders of shares of this Series B Preferred Stock (any such securities, “Senior Securities”); (2) pari passu to the shares of Preferred Stock, either as to dividends or upon liquidation, if the holders of such class or classes shall be entitled to the receipt of dividends or of amounts distributable upon dissolution, liquidation or

21



winding up of the Corporation, as the case may be, pari passu with the holders of shares of this Preferred Stock (any such securities, “Parity Securities”); and (3) junior to shares of this Preferred Stock, either as to dividends or upon liquidation, if such class shall be Common Stock or if the holders of shares of this Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receipt of dividends or of amounts distributable upon dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Corporation, as the case may be, in preference or priority to the holders of shares of such class or classes (any such securities, “Junior Securities”).
*********************


22



RESOLVED, FURTHER, that the Chairman, the president or any vice-president, and the secretary or any assistant secretary, of the Corporation be and they hereby are authorized and directed to prepare and file this Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations in accordance with the foregoing resolution and the provisions of Delaware law.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned have executed this Certificate this 18 day of November 2019.
/s/ Oliver P. Peoples
 
/s/ Charles B. Haaser
Name: Oliver P. Peoples
 
Name: Charles B. Haaser
Title: President
 
Title: Assistant Secretary






ANNEX A
NOTICE OF CONVERSION
(TO BE EXECUTED BY THE REGISTERED HOLDER IN ORDER TO CONVERT SHARES OF PREFERRED STOCK)
The undersigned hereby elects to convert the number of shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock indicated below into shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), of Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”), according to the conditions hereof, as of the date written below. If shares of Common Stock are to be issued in the name of a Person other than the undersigned, the undersigned will pay all transfer taxes payable with respect thereto. No fee will be charged to the Holders for any conversion, except for any such transfer taxes.
Conversion calculations:
Date to Effect Conversion: _____________________________________________
Number of shares of Preferred Stock owned prior to Conversion: _______________
Number of shares of Preferred Stock to be Converted: ________________________
Stated Value of shares of Preferred Stock to be Converted: ____________________
Number of shares of Common Stock to be Issued: ___________________________
Applicable Conversion Price:____________________________________________
Number of shares of Preferred Stock subsequent to Conversion: ________________
Address for Delivery: ______________________
or
DWAC Instructions:
Broker no: _________
Account no: ___________
HOLDER
By:     
Name:
Title:


Exhibit
Exhibit 4.1





SERIES [A][B] COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT

YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
Warrant Shares:                                     Issue Date: November 19, 2019
CUSIP:
ISIN:


THIS SERIES [A][B] COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT (the “Warrant”) certifies that, for value received, CEDE & CO. or its assigns (the “Holder”) is entitled, upon the terms and subject to the limitations on exercise and the conditions hereinafter set forth, at any time on or after the Authorized Share Increase Date (the “Initial Exercise Date”) and on or prior to 5:00 p.m. (New York City time) on ________.1 2 (the “Termination Date”) but not thereafter, to subscribe for and purchase from Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), up to _______ shares (as subject to adjustment hereunder, the “Warrant Shares”) of Common Stock. The purchase price of one share of Common Stock under this Warrant shall be equal to the Exercise Price, as defined in Section 2(b). This Warrant shall initially be issued and maintained in the form of a security held in book-entry form and the Depository Trust Company or its nominee (“DTC”) shall initially be the sole registered holder of this Warrant, subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive a Warrant in certificated form pursuant to the terms of the Warrant Agency Agreement, in which case this sentence shall not apply.

Section 1.    Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Warrant, the following terms have the meanings indicated in this Section 1:
Affiliate” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.
Amendment” means the amendment to the Company’s articles of incorporation that either effects a reverse stock split or increases the number of authorized shares of Common Stock such that all of the Warrants may be exercised in full by the holders of the Warrants.

Authorized Share Increase Date” means, subject to Authorized Share Approval, the date on which the Amendment is filed and accepted with the State of Delaware.

Authorized Share Approval” means approval of the Amendment by the shareholders of the Company.
_______________
1 Series A: May 19, 2022
2 Series B: May 19, 2027






Bid Price” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the bid price of the Common Stock for the time in question (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b)  if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets Group, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company.

Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.01 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.
Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Registration Statement” means the Company’s registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-233683).

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.






Trading Day” means a day on which the Common Stock is traded on a Trading Market.

Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).

Transfer Agent” means American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, with offices located at 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219 and a facsimile number of (718) 765-8712, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.

VWAP” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b)  if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets Group, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

Warrant Agency Agreement” means that certain warrant agency agreement, dated on or about the Initial Exercise Date, between the Company and the Warrant Agent.

Warrant Agent” means the Transfer Agent and any successor warrant agent of the Company.

Warrants” means this Warrant and other Common Stock purchase warrants issued by the Company pursuant to the Registration Statement.
Section 2.    Exercise.
a)Exercise of Warrant. Exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant may be made, in whole or in part, at any time or times on or after the Initial Exercise Date and on or before the Termination Date by delivery to the Company of a duly executed facsimile copy (or PDF copy submitted by e-mail attachment) of the Notice of Exercise in the form annexed hereto (the “Notice of Exercise”). Within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined in Section 2(d)(i) herein) following the date of exercise as aforesaid, the Holder shall deliver the aggregate Exercise Price for the shares specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise by wire transfer or cashier’s check drawn on a United States bank unless the cashless exercise procedure specified in Section 2(c) below is specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise. No ink-original Notice of Exercise shall be required, nor shall





any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Exercise form be required. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company until the Holder has purchased all of the Warrant Shares available hereunder and the Warrant has been exercised in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company for cancellation within three (3) Trading Days of the date on which the final Notice of Exercise is delivered to the Company. Partial exercises of this Warrant resulting in purchases of a portion of the total number of Warrant Shares available hereunder shall have the effect of lowering the outstanding number of Warrant Shares purchasable hereunder in an amount equal to the applicable number of Warrant Shares purchased. The Holder and the Company shall maintain records showing the number of Warrant Shares purchased and the date of such purchases. The Company shall deliver any objection to any Notice of Exercise within one (1) Business Day of receipt of such notice. The Holder and any assignee, by acceptance of this Warrant, acknowledge and agree that, by reason of the provisions of this paragraph, following the purchase of a portion of the Warrant Shares hereunder, the number of Warrant Shares available for purchase hereunder at any given time may be less than the amount stated on the face hereof.

Notwithstanding the foregoing in this Section 2(a), a holder whose interest in this Warrant is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing this Warrant held in book-entry form through DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect exercises made pursuant to this Section 2(a) by delivering to DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for exercise, complying with the procedures to effect exercise that are required by DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable), subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive a Warrant in certificated form pursuant to the terms of the Warrant Agency Agreement, in which case this sentence shall not apply.

b)Exercise Price. The exercise price per share of Common Stock under this Warrant shall be $0.20, subject to adjustment hereunder (the “Exercise Price”).

c)Cashless Exercise. If at the time of exercise hereof there is no effective registration statement registering, or the prospectus contained therein is not available for the issuance of the Warrant Shares to the Holder, then this Warrant may also be exercised, in whole or in part, at such time by means of a “cashless exercise” in which the Holder shall be entitled to receive a number of Warrant Shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing [(A-B) (X)] by (A), where:
(A) = as applicable: (i) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is (1) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a day that is not a Trading Day or (2) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a Trading Day prior to the opening of “regular trading hours” (as defined in Rule 600(b)(64) of Regulation NMS promulgated under the federal securities laws) on such Trading Day, (ii) at the option of the Holder, either (y) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise or (z) the Bid Price of the Common Stock on the principal Trading Market as reported by Bloomberg L.P. as of the time of the Holder’s execution of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is executed





during “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day and is delivered within two (2) hours thereafter (including until two (2) hours after the close of “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day) pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof or (iii) the VWAP on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if the date of such Notice of Exercise is a Trading Day and such Notice of Exercise is both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof after the close of “regular trading hours” on such Trading Day;

(B) = the Exercise Price of this Warrant, as adjusted hereunder; and
(X) = the number of Warrant Shares that would be issuable upon exercise of this Warrant in accordance with the terms of this Warrant if such exercise were by means of a cash exercise rather than a cashless exercise.
If Warrant Shares are issued in such a cashless exercise, the parties acknowledge and agree that in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act, the Warrant Shares shall take on the registered characteristics of the Warrants being exercised. The Company agrees not to take any position contrary to this Section 2(c).

Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, on the Termination Date, this Warrant shall be automatically exercised via cashless exercise pursuant to this Section 2(c).
Notwithstanding the foregoing, and without limiting the rights of the Holder under Sections 2(d)(i) and 2(d)(iv), in no event will the Company be required to net cash settle an exercise of this Warrant.
d)Mechanics of Exercise.

i.Delivery of Warrant Shares Upon Exercise. Warrant Shares purchased hereunder shall be transmitted by the Transfer Agent to the Holder by crediting the account of the Holder’s or its designee’s balance account with The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system (“DWAC”) if the Company is then a participant in such system and either (A) there is an effective registration statement permitting the issuance of the Warrant Shares to or resale of the Warrant Shares by Holder or (B) this Warrant is being exercised via cashless exercise, and otherwise by physical delivery of a certificate, registered in the Company’s share register in the name of the Holder or its designee, for the number of Warrant Shares to which the Holder is entitled pursuant to such exercise to the address specified by the Holder in the Notice of Exercise by the date that is the earliest of (i) two (2) Trading Days after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise, (ii) one (1) Trading Day after delivery of the aggregate Exercise Price to the Company and (iii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise (such date, the “Warrant Share Delivery Date”). Upon delivery of the Notice of Exercise, the Holder shall be deemed for all corporate purposes to have become the holder of record of the Warrant Shares with respect to which this Warrant has been exercised, irrespective of the date of delivery of the Warrant Shares, provided that payment of the aggregate Exercise Price (other than in the case of a cashless exercise) is received within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period following delivery of





the Notice of Exercise. If the Company fails for any reason to deliver to the Holder the Warrant Shares subject to a Notice of Exercise by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, the Company shall pay to the Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $1,000 of Warrant Shares subject to such exercise (based on the VWAP of the Common Stock on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise), $5 per Trading Day (increasing to $10 per Trading Day on the fifth Trading Day after such liquidated damages begin to accrue) for each Trading Day after such Warrant Share Delivery Date until such Warrant Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such exercise. The Company agrees to maintain a transfer agent that is a participant in the FAST program so long as this Warrant remains outstanding and exercisable. As used herein, “Standard Settlement Period” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Company’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Exercise.

ii.Delivery of New Warrants Upon Exercise. If this Warrant shall have been exercised in part, the Company shall, at the request of a Holder and upon surrender of this Warrant, at the time of delivery of the Warrant Shares, deliver to the Holder a new Warrant evidencing the rights of the Holder to purchase the unpurchased Warrant Shares called for by this Warrant, which new Warrant shall in all other respects be identical with this Warrant.

iii. Rescission Rights. If the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, then the Holder will have the right to rescind such exercise.

iv.Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Warrant Shares Upon Exercise. In addition to any other rights available to the Holder, if the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares in accordance with the provisions of Section 2(d)(i) above pursuant to an exercise on or before the Warrant Share Delivery Date, and if after such date the Holder is required by its broker to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise) or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by the Holder of the Warrant Shares which the Holder anticipated receiving upon such exercise (a “Buy-In”), then the Company shall (A) pay in cash to the Holder the amount, if any, by which (x) the Holder’s total purchase price (including brokerage commissions, if any) for the shares of Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the amount obtained by multiplying (1) the number of Warrant Shares that the Company was required to deliver to the Holder in connection with the exercise at issue times (2) the price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed, and (B) at the option of the Holder, either reinstate the portion of the Warrant and equivalent number of Warrant Shares for which such exercise was not honored (in which case such exercise shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued had the Company timely complied with its exercise and delivery obligations hereunder. For example, if the Holder purchases Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted exercise of shares of Common Stock with an aggregate sale price giving rise to such purchase obligation of $10,000, under clause (A) of the immediately





preceding sentence the Company shall be required to pay the Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Company written notice indicating the amounts payable to the Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Company, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Company’s failure to timely deliver shares of Common Stock upon exercise of the Warrant as required pursuant to the terms hereof.

v. No Fractional Shares or Scrip. No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the exercise of this Warrant. As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to purchase upon such exercise, the Company shall round up to the next whole share.

vi.  Charges, Taxes and Expenses. Issuance of Warrant Shares shall be made without charge to the Holder for any issue or transfer tax or other incidental expense in respect of the issuance of such Warrant Shares, all of which taxes and expenses shall be paid by the Company, and such Warrant Shares shall be issued in the name of the Holder or in such name or names as may be directed by the Holder; provided, however, that in the event that Warrant Shares are to be issued in a name other than the name of the Holder, this Warrant when surrendered for exercise shall be accompanied by the Assignment Form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder and the Company may require, as a condition thereto, the payment of a sum sufficient to reimburse it for any transfer tax incidental thereto. The Company shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Exercise and all fees to the Depository Trust Company (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Warrant Shares.

vii. Closing of Books. The Company will not close its stockholder books or records in any manner which prevents the timely exercise of this Warrant, pursuant to the terms hereof.

e)Holder’s Exercise Limitations. The Company shall not effect any exercise of this Warrant, and a Holder shall not have the right to exercise any portion of this Warrant, pursuant to Section 2 or otherwise, to the extent that after giving effect to such issuance after exercise as set forth on the applicable Notice of Exercise, the Holder (together with the Holder’s Affiliates, and any other Persons acting as a group together with the Holder or any of the Holder’s Affiliates (such Persons, “Attribution Parties”)), would beneficially own in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below).  For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by the Holder and its Affiliates and Attribution Parties shall include the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant with respect to which such determination is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which would be issuable upon (i) exercise of the remaining, nonexercised portion of this Warrant beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties and (ii) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or nonconverted portion of any other securities of the





Company (including, without limitation, any other Common Stock Equivalents) subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties.  Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 2(e), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Subject to the Holder's right to rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock set forth below, it being acknowledged by the Holder that the Company is not representing to the Holder that such calculation is in compliance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the Holder is solely responsible for any schedules required to be filed in accordance therewith. To the extent that the limitation contained in this Section 2(e) applies, the determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable shall be in the sole discretion of the Holder, and the submission of a Notice of Exercise shall be deemed to be the Holder’s determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable, in each case subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation. To ensure compliance with this restriction, each Holder shall be deemed to represent to the Company each time it delivers a Notice of Exercise that such Notice of Exercise has not violated the restrictions set forth in this paragraph, and the Company shall have no obligation to verify or confirm the accuracy of such determination. In addition, a determination as to any group status as contemplated above shall be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this Section 2(e), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as reflected in (A) the Company’s most recent periodic or annual report filed with the Commission, as the case may be, (B) a more recent public announcement by the Company or (C) a more recent written notice by the Company or the Transfer Agent setting forth the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding.  Upon the written or oral request of a Holder, the Company shall within two Trading Days confirm orally and in writing to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding.  In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to the conversion or exercise of securities of the Company, including this Warrant, by the Holder or its Affiliates or Attribution Parties since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was reported. The “Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall be 4.99% (or, upon election by a Holder prior to the issuance of any Warrants, 9.99%) of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant. The Holder, upon notice to the Company, may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation provisions of this Section 2(e), provided that the Beneficial Ownership Limitation in no event exceeds 9.99% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of this Warrant held by the Holder and the provisions of this Section 2(e) shall continue to apply. Any increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until the 61st day after such notice is delivered to the Company. The provisions of this paragraph shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this Section 2(e) to correct this paragraph (or any portion hereof) which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended Beneficial Ownership Limitation herein contained or to make changes or supplements necessary or desirable to properly





give effect to such limitation. The limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply to a successor holder of this Warrant.
f)[Call Provision. Subject to the provisions of Section 2(e) and this Section 2(f), if, after November 19, 2023, (i) the VWAP for each of 20 consecutive Trading Days (the “Measurement Period,” which 20 consecutive Trading Day period shall not have commenced until after the Initial Exercise Date) exceeds $0.60 (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and the like after the Initial Exercise Date), (ii) the average daily volume for such Measurement Period exceeds $175,000 per Trading Day and (iii) the Holder is not in possession of any information that constitutes, or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Company, any of its Subsidiaries, or any of their officers, directors, employees, agents or Affiliates, then the Company may, within 1 Trading Day of the end of such Measurement Period, call for cancellation of all or any portion of this Warrant for which a Notice of Exercise has not yet been delivered (such right, a “Call”) for consideration equal to $0.001 per Warrant Share. To exercise this right, the Company must deliver to the Holder an irrevocable written notice (a “Call Notice”), indicating therein the portion of unexercised portion of this Warrant to which such notice applies. If the conditions set forth below for such Call are satisfied from the period from the date of the Call Notice through and including the Call Date (as defined below), then any portion of this Warrant subject to such Call Notice for which a Notice of Exercise shall not have been received by the Call Date will be cancelled at 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the tenth Trading Day after the date the Call Notice is received by the Holder (such date and time, the “Call Date”). Any unexercised portion of this Warrant to which the Call Notice does not pertain will be unaffected by such Call Notice. In furtherance thereof, the Company covenants and agrees that it will honor all Notices of Exercise with respect to Warrant Shares subject to a Call Notice that are tendered through 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date. The parties agree that any Notice of Exercise delivered following a Call Notice which calls less than all of the Warrants shall first reduce to zero the number of Warrant Shares subject to such Call Notice prior to reducing the remaining Warrant Shares available for purchase under this Warrant. For example, if (A) this Warrant then permits the Holder to acquire 100 Warrant Shares, (B) a Call Notice pertains to 75 Warrant Shares, and (C) prior to 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date the Holder tenders a Notice of Exercise in respect of 50 Warrant Shares, then (x) on the Call Date the right under this Warrant to acquire 25 Warrant Shares will be automatically cancelled, (y) the Company, in the time and manner required under this Warrant, will have issued and delivered to the Holder 50 Warrant Shares in respect of the exercises following receipt of the Call Notice, and (z) the Holder may, until the Termination Date, exercise this Warrant for 25 Warrant Shares (subject to adjustment as herein provided and subject to subsequent Call Notices). Subject again to the provisions of this Section 2(f), the Company may deliver subsequent Call Notices for any portion of this Warrant for which the Holder shall not have delivered a Notice of Exercise. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in this Warrant, the Company may not deliver a Call Notice or require the cancellation of this Warrant (and any such Call Notice shall be void), unless, from the beginning of the Measurement Period through the Call Date, (1) the Company shall have honored in accordance with the terms of this Warrant all Notices of Exercise delivered by 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date, and (2) a registration statement shall be effective as to all Warrant Shares and the prospectus thereunder available for use by the Company for the sale of all such Warrant Shares to the Holder, and (3) the Common Stock shall be listed or quoted for trading on the Trading Market, and (4) there





is a sufficient number of authorized shares of Common Stock for issuance of all Warrant Shares, and (5) the issuance of all Warrant Shares subject to a Call Notice shall not cause a breach of any provision of Section 2(e) herein. The Company’s right to call the Warrants under this Section 2(f) shall be exercised ratably among the Holders based on each Holder’s initial purchase of Warrants.]3 

Section 3.    Certain Adjustments.
a)Stock Dividends and Splits. If the Company, at any time while this Warrant is outstanding: (i) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions on shares of its Common Stock or any other equity or equity equivalent securities payable in shares of Common Stock (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Company upon exercise of this Warrant), (ii) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares, (iii) combines (including by way of reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, or (iv) issues by reclassification of shares of the Common Stock any shares of capital stock of the Company, then in each case the Exercise Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) outstanding immediately before such event and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event, and the number of shares issuable upon exercise of this Warrant shall be proportionately adjusted such that the aggregate Exercise Price of this Warrant shall remain unchanged. Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 3(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision, combination or re‑classification.

b)Subsequent Rights Offerings. In addition to any adjustments pursuant to Section 3(a) above, if at any time the Company grants, issues or sells any Common Stock Equivalents or rights to purchase stock, warrants, securities or other property pro rata to the record holders of any class of shares of Common Stock (the “Purchase Rights”), then the Holder will be entitled to acquire, upon the terms applicable to such Purchase Rights, the aggregate Purchase Rights which the Holder could have acquired if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date on which a record is taken for the grant, issuance or sale of such Purchase Rights, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the grant, issue or sale of such Purchase Rights (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Purchase Right would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Purchase Right to such extent (or beneficial ownership of such shares of Common Stock as a result of such Purchase Right to such extent) and such Purchase Right to such extent shall be held in abeyance for the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).
_____________
3 Included in Series B Warrant only.





c)Pro Rata Distributions. During such time as this Warrant is outstanding, if the Company shall declare or make any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a "Distribution"), at any time after the issuance of this Warrant, then, in each such case, the Holder shall be entitled to participate in such Distribution to the same extent that the Holder would have participated therein if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date of which a record is taken for such Distribution, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the participation in such Distribution (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder's right to participate in any such Distribution would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Distribution to such extent (or in the beneficial ownership of any shares of Common Stock as a result of such Distribution to such extent) and the portion of such Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation). To the extent that this Warrant has not been partially or completely exercised at the time of such Distribution, such portion of the Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until the Holder has exercised this Warrant.

d)Fundamental Transaction. If, at any time while this Warrant is outstanding, (i) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any merger or consolidation of the Company with or into another Person, (ii) the Company, directly or indirectly, effects any sale, lease, license, assignment, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of its assets in one or a series of related transactions, (iii) any, direct or indirect, purchase offer, tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Company or another Person) is completed pursuant to which holders of Common Stock are permitted to sell, tender or exchange their shares for other securities, cash or property and has been accepted by the holders of 50% or more of the outstanding Common Stock, (iv) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any reclassification, reorganization or recapitalization of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property, or (v) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions consummates a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off, merger or scheme of arrangement) with another Person or group of Persons whereby such other Person or group acquires more than 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (not including any shares of Common Stock held by the other Person or other Persons making or party to, or associated or affiliated with the other Persons making or party to, such stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination) (each a “Fundamental Transaction”), then, upon any subsequent exercise of this Warrant, the Holder shall have the right to receive, for each Warrant Share that would have been issuable upon such exercise immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction, at the option of the Holder (without regard to any limitation in Section 2(e) on the exercise of this Warrant), the number of shares of Common Stock of the successor





or acquiring corporation or of the Company, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration (the “Alternate Consideration”) receivable as a result of such Fundamental Transaction by a holder of the number of shares of Common Stock for which this Warrant is exercisable immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 2(e) on the exercise of this Warrant). For purposes of any such exercise, the determination of the Exercise Price shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Company shall apportion the Exercise Price among the Alternate Consideration in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holder shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any exercise of this Warrant following such Fundamental Transaction. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, in the event of a Fundamental Transaction, the Company or any Successor Entity (as defined below) shall, at the Holder’s option, exercisable at any time concurrently with, or within 30 days after, the consummation of the Fundamental Transaction (or, if later, the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction), purchase this Warrant from the Holder by paying to the Holder an amount of cash equal to the Black Scholes Value (as defined below) of the remaining unexercised portion of this Warrant on the date of the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction, provided, however, that, if the Fundamental Transaction is not within the Company's control, including not approved by the Company's Board of Directors, Holder shall only be entitled to receive from the Company or any Successor Entity, as of the date of consummation of such Fundamental Transaction, the same type or form of consideration (and in the same proportion), at the Black Scholes Value of the unexercised portion of this Warrant, that is being offered and paid to the holders of Common Stock of the Company in connection with the Fundamental Transaction, whether that consideration be in the form of cash, stock or any combination thereof, or whether the holders of Common Stock are given the choice to receive from among alternative forms of consideration in connection with the Fundamental Transaction.. “Black Scholes Value” means the value of this Warrant based on the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model obtained from the “OV” function on Bloomberg, L.P. (“Bloomberg”) determined as of the day of consummation of the applicable Fundamental Transaction for pricing purposes and reflecting (A) a risk-free interest rate corresponding to the U.S. Treasury rate for a period equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction and the Termination Date, (B) an expected volatility equal to the greater of 100% and the 100 day volatility obtained from the HVT function on Bloomberg (determined utilizing a 365 day annualization factor) as of the Trading Day immediately following the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction, (C) the underlying price per share used in such calculation shall be the greater of (i) the sum of the price per share being offered in cash, if any, plus the value of any non-cash consideration, if any, being offered in such Fundamental Transaction and (ii) the greater of (x) the last VWAP immediately prior to the public announcement of such Fundamental Transaction and (y) the last VWAP immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction and (D) a remaining option time equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction and the Termination Date. The payment of the Black Scholes Value will be made by wire transfer of immediately available funds within five Business Days of the Holder’s election (or, if later, on the effective date of the Fundamental Transaction). The Company shall cause any successor entity in a Fundamental





Transaction in which the Company is not the survivor (the “Successor Entity”) to assume in writing all of the obligations of the Company under this Warrant in accordance with the provisions of this Section 3(e) pursuant to written agreements in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Holder and approved by the Holder (without unreasonable delay) prior to such Fundamental Transaction and shall, at the option of the Holder, deliver to the Holder in exchange for this Warrant a security of the Successor Entity evidenced by a written instrument substantially similar in form and substance to this Warrant which is exercisable for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock of such Successor Entity (or its parent entity) equivalent to the shares of Common Stock acquirable and receivable upon exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on the exercise of this Warrant) prior to such Fundamental Transaction, and with an exercise price which applies the exercise price hereunder to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Fundamental Transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such number of shares of capital stock and such exercise price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of this Warrant immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction), and which is reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Holder. Upon the occurrence of any such Fundamental Transaction, the Successor Entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such Fundamental Transaction, the provisions of this Warrant referring to the “Company” shall refer instead to the Successor Entity), and may exercise every right and power of the Company and shall assume all of the obligations of the Company under this Warrant with the same effect as if such Successor Entity had been named as the Company herein.

e)Calculations. All calculations under this Section 3 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 3, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) issued and outstanding.

f)Notice to Holder.

i.Adjustment to Exercise Price. Whenever the Exercise Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 3, the Company shall promptly deliver to the Holder by facsimile or email a notice setting forth the Exercise Price after such adjustment and any resulting adjustment to the number of Warrant Shares and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.

ii.Notice to Allow Exercise by Holder. If (A) the Company shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Company shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Company shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Company shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Company is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company, or any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property, or (E) the Company shall authorize the voluntary or





involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Company, then, in each case, the Company shall cause to be delivered by facsimile or email to the Holder at its last facsimile number or email address as it shall appear upon the Warrant Register of the Company, at least 20 calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange; provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice. To the extent that any notice provided in this Warrant constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Company or any of the Subsidiaries, the Company shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Holder shall remain entitled to exercise this Warrant during the period commencing on the date of such notice to the effective date of the event triggering such notice except as may otherwise be expressly set forth herein.
Section 4.    Transfer of Warrant.
a)Transferability. Subject to compliance with any applicable securities laws, this Warrant and all rights hereunder (including, without limitation, any registration rights) are transferable, in whole or in part, upon surrender of this Warrant at the principal office of the Company or its designated agent, together with a written assignment of this Warrant substantially in the form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder or its agent or attorney and funds sufficient to pay any transfer taxes payable upon the making of such transfer. Upon such surrender and, if required, such payment, the Company shall execute and deliver a new Warrant or Warrants in the name of the assignee or assignees, as applicable, and in the denomination or denominations specified in such instrument of assignment, and shall issue to the assignor a new Warrant evidencing the portion of this Warrant not so assigned, and this Warrant shall promptly be cancelled. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company unless the Holder has assigned this Warrant in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company within three (3) Trading Days of the date the Holder delivers an assignment form to the Company assigning this Warrant in full. The Warrant, if properly assigned in accordance herewith, may be exercised by a new holder for the purchase of Warrant Shares without having a new Warrant issued.

b)New Warrants. If this Warrant is not held in global form through DTC (or any successor depositary), this Warrant may be divided or combined with other Warrants upon presentation hereof at the aforesaid office of the Company, together with a written notice specifying the names and denominations in which new Warrants are to be issued, signed by the Holder or its





agent or attorney. Subject to compliance with Section 4(a), as to any transfer which may be involved in such division or combination, the Company shall execute and deliver a new Warrant or Warrants in exchange for the Warrant or Warrants to be divided or combined in accordance with such notice. All Warrants issued on transfers or exchanges shall be dated the initial issuance date of this Warrant and shall be identical with this Warrant except as to the number of Warrant Shares issuable pursuant thereto.

c)Warrant Register. The Company shall register this Warrant, upon records to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose (the “Warrant Register”), in the name of the record Holder hereof from time to time. The Company and the Warrant Agent may deem and treat the registered Holder of this Warrant as the absolute owner hereof for the purpose of any exercise hereof or any distribution to the Holder, and for all other purposes, absent actual notice to the contrary.
Section 5.    Miscellaneous.
a)No Rights as Stockholder Until Exercise. This Warrant does not entitle the Holder to any voting rights, dividends or other rights as a stockholder of the Company prior to the exercise hereof as set forth in Section 2(d)(i), except as expressly set forth in Section 3. Without limiting any rights of a Holder to receive Warrant Shares on a “cashless exercise” pursuant to Section 2(c) or to receive cash payments pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) and Section 2(d)(iv) herein, in no event shall the Company be required to net cash settle an exercise of this Warrant.

b)Loss, Theft, Destruction or Mutilation of Warrant. The Company covenants that upon receipt by the Company or the Warrant Agent of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it of the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of this Warrant or any stock certificate relating to the Warrant Shares, and in case of loss, theft or destruction, of indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it (which, in the case of the Warrant, shall not include the posting of any bond), and upon surrender and cancellation of such Warrant or stock certificate, if mutilated, the Company will make and deliver a new Warrant or stock certificate of like tenor and dated as of such cancellation, in lieu of such Warrant or stock certificate.

c)Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc. If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then, such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.

d)Authorized Shares. The Company covenants that, from and after the Authorized Share Increase Date, during the period the Warrant is outstanding, it will reserve from its authorized and unissued Common Stock a sufficient number of shares to provide for the issuance of the Warrant Shares upon the exercise of any purchase rights under this Warrant. The Company further covenants that its issuance of this Warrant shall constitute full authority to its officers who are charged with the duty of issuing the necessary Warrant Shares upon the exercise of the purchase rights under this Warrant. The Company will take all such reasonable action as may be necessary to assure that such Warrant Shares may be issued as provided herein without violation of any applicable law or regulation, or of any requirements of the Trading Market upon which the Common Stock may be listed. The Company covenants that all Warrant Shares which may be issued upon the exercise of





the purchase rights represented by this Warrant will, upon exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant and payment for such Warrant Shares in accordance herewith, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and free from all taxes, liens and charges created by the Company in respect of the issue thereof (other than taxes in respect of any transfer occurring contemporaneously with such issue).

Except and to the extent as waived or consented to by the Holder, the Company shall not by any action, including, without limitation, amending its certificate of incorporation or through any reorganization, transfer of assets, consolidation, merger, dissolution, issue or sale of securities or any other voluntary action, avoid or seek to avoid the observance or performance of any of the terms of this Warrant, but will at all times in good faith assist in the carrying out of all such terms and in the taking of all such actions as may be necessary or appropriate to protect the rights of Holder as set forth in this Warrant against impairment. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Company will (i) not increase the par value of any Warrant Shares above the amount payable therefor upon such exercise immediately prior to such increase in par value, (ii) take all such action as may be necessary or appropriate in order that the Company may validly and legally issue fully paid and nonassessable Warrant Shares upon the exercise of this Warrant and (iii) use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain all such authorizations, exemptions or consents from any public regulatory body having jurisdiction thereof, as may be, necessary to enable the Company to perform its obligations under this Warrant.

Before taking any action which would result in an adjustment in the number of Warrant Shares for which this Warrant is exercisable or in the Exercise Price, the Company shall obtain all such authorizations or exemptions thereof, or consents thereto, as may be necessary from any public regulatory body or bodies having jurisdiction thereof.

e)Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Warrant shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Warrant (whether brought against a party hereto or their respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Warrant and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If either party shall commence an action, suit or





proceeding to enforce any provisions of this Warrant, the prevailing party in such action, suit or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for their reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.

f)Restrictions. The Holder acknowledges that the Warrant Shares acquired upon the exercise of this Warrant, if not registered, and the Holder does not utilize cashless exercise, will have restrictions upon resale imposed by state and federal securities laws.

g)Nonwaiver and Expenses. No course of dealing or any delay or failure to exercise any right hereunder on the part of Holder shall operate as a waiver of such right or otherwise prejudice the Holder’s rights, powers or remedies, notwithstanding the fact that all rights hereunder terminate on the Termination Date. Without limiting any other provision of this Warrant, if the Company willfully and knowingly fails to comply with any provision of this Warrant, which results in any material damages to the Holder, the Company shall pay to the Holder such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover any costs and expenses including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys’ fees, including those of appellate proceedings, incurred by the Holder in collecting any amounts due pursuant hereto or in otherwise enforcing any of its rights, powers or remedies hereunder.

h)Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Exercise, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Company, at 19 Presidential Way, Woburn, Massachusetts 01801, Attention: Chief Executive Officer, email address: peoples@yield10bio.com, or such other facsimile number, email address or address as the Company may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Company hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or by e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the facsimile number, e-mail address or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Company. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the next Trading Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (iii) the second Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. To the extent that any notice provided hereunder constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Company or any subsidiaries, the Company shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K.

i)Limitation of Liability. No provision hereof, in the absence of any affirmative action by the Holder to exercise this Warrant to purchase Warrant Shares, and no enumeration herein of the rights or privileges of the Holder, shall give rise to any liability of the Holder for the purchase





price of any Common Stock or as a stockholder of the Company, whether such liability is asserted by the Company or by creditors of the Company.

j)Remedies. The Holder, in addition to being entitled to exercise all rights granted by law, including recovery of damages, will be entitled to specific performance of its rights under this Warrant. The Company agrees that monetary damages would not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of a breach by it of the provisions of this Warrant and hereby agrees to waive and not to assert the defense in any action for specific performance that a remedy at law would be adequate.

k)Successors and Assigns. Subject to applicable securities laws, this Warrant and the rights and obligations evidenced hereby shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the successors and permitted assigns of the Company and the successors and permitted assigns of Holder. The provisions of this Warrant are intended to be for the benefit of any Holder from time to time of this Warrant and shall be enforceable by the Holder or holder of Warrant Shares.

l)Amendment. This Warrant may be modified or amended or the provisions hereof waived with the written consent of the Company, on the one hand, and the Holder or the beneficial owner of this Warrant, on the other hand. This Warrant also may be modified or amended or the provisions hereof waived with the written consent of the Company and the holders of Warrants representing 67% of the Warrant Shares issuable under Warrants then outstanding as of the date such consent is sought; provided, however, that (i) no such amendment shall adversely affect any Holder differently than it affects all other Holders, unless such Holder consents thereto and (ii) no amendment may increase the Exercise Price, decrease the number of shares or change the class of shares obtainable upon exercise of this Warrant or decrease the time period in which this Warrant can be exercised without the written consent of the Holder.

m)Severability. Wherever possible, each provision of this Warrant shall be interpreted in such manner as to be effective and valid under applicable law, but if any provision of this Warrant shall be prohibited by or invalid under applicable law, such provision shall be ineffective to the extent of such prohibition or invalidity, without invalidating the remainder of such provisions or the remaining provisions of this Warrant.

n)Headings. The headings used in this Warrant are for the convenience of reference only and shall not, for any purpose, be deemed a part of this Warrant.

o)Warrant Agency Agreement. If this Warrant is held in global form through DTC (or any successor depositary), this Warrant is issued subject to the Warrant Agency Agreement. To the extent any provision of this Warrant conflicts with the express provisions of the Warrant Agency Agreement, the provisions of this Warrant shall govern and be controlling.

********************

(Signature Page Follows)






IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this Warrant to be executed by its officer thereunto duly authorized as of the date first above indicated.



 
YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Oliver P. Peoples
 
Name:
Oliver P. Peoples
 
Title:
President and Chief Executive Officer
    

    









    
NOTICE OF EXERCISE

TO:    YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.

(1)The undersigned hereby elects to purchase ________ Warrant Shares of the Company pursuant to the terms of the attached Warrant (only if exercised in full), and tenders herewith payment of the exercise price in full, together with all applicable transfer taxes, if any.

(2)Payment shall take the form of (check applicable box):
[ ] in lawful money of the United States; or

[ ] if permitted the cancellation of such number of Warrant Shares as is necessary, in accordance with the formula set forth in subsection 2(c), to exercise this Warrant with respect to the maximum number of Warrant Shares purchasable pursuant to the cashless exercise procedure set forth in subsection 2(c).
(3)Please issue said Warrant Shares in the name of the undersigned or in such other name as is specified below:
_______________________________
            
The Warrant Shares shall be delivered to the following DWAC Account Number:

_______________________________
            
_______________________________
            
_______________________________

[SIGNATURE OF HOLDER]
    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Name of Investing Entity:
 
Signature of Authorized Signatory of Investing Entity:
 
Name of Authorized Signatory:
 
Title of Authorized Signatory:
 
Date:
 







ASSIGNMENT FORM

(To assign the foregoing Warrant, execute this form and supply required information. Do not use this form to purchase shares.)
FOR VALUE RECEIVED, the foregoing Warrant and all rights evidenced thereby are hereby assigned to
 
 
 
 
Name:
 
 
(Please Print)
 
 
Address:
 
 
(Please Print)
 
 
Phone Number:
 
Email Address:
 
Dated: _______________ __, ______
 
Holder’s Signature:
 
 
Holder’s Address:
 
 




Exhibit
Exhibit 10.1

SECURITIES PURCHASE AGREEMENT
This SECURITIES PURCHASE AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”) dated November 14, 2019, is entered into by and among (i) Yield10 Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and (ii) each person listed on Schedule I hereto (each, an “Investor” and collectively, the “Investors”).
WHEREAS, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement, the Company desires to issue and sell to each Investor, and each Investor, severally and not jointly, desires to purchase from the Company, an aggregate of 5,750 units of the Company’s securities (each, a “Unit” and collectively, the “Units”), in a private placement pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”); and
WHEREAS, as provided in the certificate of designation, in the form of Exhibit A attached hereto (the “Certificate of Designation”), to be filed by the Company prior to the Closing (as defined below) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, each share of Preferred Stock will automatically convert into one share of Common Stock upon the effectiveness of the filing with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware of an amendment (the “Charter Amendment”) to the Company’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, increasing the number of authorized shares of Common Stock to a number to be determined in consultation with the Investors.
NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual covenants made herein and for other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, the parties hereto, intending to be legally bound, agree as follows:
1.Purchase and Sale of Securities. Subject to the terms and conditions hereof, each Investor agrees, severally and not jointly, to purchase from the Company, and the Company agrees to sell to the Investors at the Closing, the number of Units set forth opposite each such Investor’s name on Schedule I hereto for the aggregate purchase price set forth in Schedule I hereto. Each Unit will consist of one share of our Series B Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Series B Preferred Stock”) convertible into 5,000 shares of common stock, Series A Warrants to purchase 5,000 shares of common stock and Series B Warrants to purchase 5,000 shares of common stock, at a price of $1,000 per Unit.
2.    Issuance of Securities. Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the contrary, the Company shall have no obligation to sell any of the Securities (as defined below) to any person who is a resident of a jurisdiction in which the sale of Securities to such person would constitute a violation of the securities, “blue sky” or other similar laws of such jurisdiction (collectively referred to as the “State Securities Laws”). For purposes of this Agreement, “Securities” shall mean the shares of Series B Preferred Stock (the “Preferred Shares”) and the shares of Common Stock issued or issuable upon conversion of the Preferred Shares, the Series A Warrants and the Series B Warrants (such shares of Common Stock, the “Underlying Shares”).





3.    The Closing. The closing of the purchase and sale of the Units (the “Closing”) shall take place at the headquarters of the Company as promptly as practicable after the satisfaction or waiver (to the extent permitted by law) of the conditions set forth in Section 7 hereof, or at such other time and place as the Company may designate by notice to the Investors (such date and time being referred to herein as the “Closing Date”); provided, however, that if the Closing Date does not occur on or before February 1, 2020, this Agreement may be terminated by any Investor, as to such Investor’s obligations hereunder and without any effect whatsoever on the obligations between the Company and the other Investors, by written notice to the other parties.
4.    Payment for Securities. Payment for the Units shall be received by the Company from the Investors by wire transfer of immediately available funds or other means approved by the Company at or prior to the Closing, at the price of $1,000.00 per Unit. The Company shall deliver or cause its transfer agent to deliver certificates representing the Preferred Shares, the Series A Warrants and the Series B Warrants, that each Investor purchases to each such Investor at the Closing bearing the legend set forth in Section 10.
5.    Representations and Warranties of the Company. Except as otherwise specifically described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company’s Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2019, June 30, 2019, and September 30, 2019, and any current reports on Form 8-K filed by the Company subsequent to December 31, 2018 and through the date of this Agreement with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), including the information incorporated by reference therein (collectively, the “Disclosure Package”), the Company hereby represents and warrants to and covenants with the Investors, as of the date hereof and as of the Closing, that:
(a)    Organization, Good Standing and Qualification. The Company is duly formed and validly existing under the laws of Delaware, with full corporate power and authority to conduct its business as it is currently being conducted and to own its assets; and has secured any other material authorizations, approvals, permits and orders required by law for the conduct by the Company of its business as it is currently being conducted. Metabolix GmbH and Metabolix Oilseeds, Inc., the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries (the “Subsidiaries”), are duly formed and validly existing under the laws of Germany and Canada, respectively, with full corporate power and authority to conduct their respective businesses as they are currently being conducted and to own their respective assets; and has secured any other material authorizations, approvals, permits and orders required by law for the conduct by the Subsidiaries of their businesses as they are currently being conducted. The Company has no material subsidiaries other than the Subsidiaries.

2



(b)    Authorization. The Company has all corporate right, power and authority to enter into this Agreement and, subject to receipt of the approval of (i) the Charter Amendment by the holders of a majority of the Company’s outstanding shares of Common Stock and (ii) the issuance of securities to the Investors pursuant to Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5635(d) (the “Stockholder Approval”), to consummate the transactions contemplated hereby. Except for the Stockholder Approval, all corporate action on the part of the Company, its directors and stockholders necessary for the authorization, execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the authorization, sale, issuance and delivery of the Securities contemplated herein and the performance of the Company’s obligations hereunder has been taken. This Agreement has been duly executed and delivered by the Company and constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms.
(c)    Capitalization.
(i)    As of the date hereof, the authorized capital stock of the Company consisted of 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, none of which were issued and outstanding, and 60,000,000 shares of Common Stock, 12,519,017 shares of which were issued and outstanding. The Preferred Stock and the Common Stock are collectively referred to herein as the “Capital Stock.” All of the issued and outstanding shares of Capital Stock have been duly authorized, validly issued and are fully paid and nonassessable. As of September 30, 2019, 7,039,784 shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of warrants were outstanding, options to purchase 2,484,475 shares of Common Stock were outstanding, and an additional 25,180 shares of Common Stock were available for issuance under the Company’s Stock Option and Incentive Plan. Except as set forth in the preceding sentence and in the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (Reg. No. 333-233683), as of the date hereof there are no outstanding options, warrants, rights (including conversion or preemptive rights), agreements, arrangements or commitments of any character, whether or not contingent, relating to the issued or unissued Capital Stock of the Company or obligating the Company to issue or sell any share of Capital Stock of, or other equity interest in, the Company.
(ii)    The Common Shares and the Preferred Shares have been duly authorized and, when issued, delivered and paid for in the manner set forth in this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable and shall be free and clear of any encumbrances, preemptive rights or restrictions (other than as provided in this Agreement or any restrictions on transfer generally imposed under applicable securities laws). Subject to receipt of Stockholder Approval, the Underlying Shares, when issued in accordance with the Certificate of Designation and this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable and shall be free and clear of any encumbrances, preemptive rights or restrictions (other than as provided

3



in this Agreement or any restrictions on transfer generally imposed under applicable securities laws).
(iii)    No “bad actor” disqualifying event described in Rule 506(d)(1)(i)-(viii) of the Securities Act (a “Disqualification Event”) is applicable to the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any Company Covered Person, except for a Disqualification Event as to which Rule 506(d)(2)(ii–iv) or (d)(3), is applicable. For purposes of this Agreement a “Company Covered Person” means, with respect to the Company as an “issuer” for purposes of Rule 506 of the Securities Act, any person listed in the first paragraph of Rule 506(d)(1).
(iv)    The Company owns all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of its Subsidiaries.
(d)    Consents. The Company is not required to obtain any material consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other person in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, other than the Stockholder Approval, filings that have been made, or will be made, pursuant to the rules and regulations of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”), applicable State Securities Laws and post-sale filings pursuant to applicable federal and State Securities Laws which the Company undertakes to file or obtain within the applicable time periods.
(e)    Securities Laws. Assuming the accuracy of each Investor’s representations and warranties set forth in Section 6, no registration under the Securities Act is required for the offer and sale of the Securities by the Company to the Investors as contemplated hereby.
(f)    Litigation. There is no action, suit, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, currently threatened in writing against the Company or any of its directors and officers that questions the validity of this Agreement or the right of the Company to enter into this Agreement or to consummate the transactions contemplated hereby. There is no action, suit, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, currently threatened in writing against the Company or any subsidiary or any of their respective directors and officers which would have, either individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect (as defined below).
(g)    Filings. The Company has filed all forms, reports and documents required to be filed by it with the Commission (collectively, the “Company SEC Reports”). As of the respective dates they were filed (except if amended, updated or superseded by a filing made by the Company with the Commission prior to the date of this Agreement, then on the date of such filing), the Company SEC Reports complied in all material respects with the requirements of the

4



Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as the case may be, and the applicable rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.
(h)    Financial Statements. The consolidated financial statements of the Company (including any notes thereto) contained in the Disclosure Package (i) complied as to form in all material respects with the published rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto, (ii) were prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods indicated (except as may be indicated in the notes thereto or, in the case of unaudited financial statements, as permitted by Form 10-Q or Form 8-K) and (iii) each presented fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of the respective dates thereof and for the respective periods indicated therein, except as otherwise noted therein (subject, in the case of unaudited financial statements, to normal and recurring year-end adjustments which were not and are not expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect). The Company has not had any material disagreement with any of its auditors regarding accounting matters or policies during any of its past three full fiscal years or during the current fiscal year-to-date, which disagreements would require disclosure to the Company’s Board of Directors.
(i)    Certain Fees. No brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company or any subsidiary of the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other person with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, other than those payable to Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc., the Company’s financial advisor. The Investors shall have no obligation with respect to any fees or with respect to any claims made by or on behalf of other persons for fees of a type contemplated in this Section that may be due in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.
(j)    Acknowledgment Regarding Investors’ Purchase of Securities. The Company acknowledges and agrees that each of the Investors is acting solely in the capacity of an arm’s length purchaser with respect to this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby. The Company further acknowledges that no Investor is acting as a financial advisor or fiduciary of the Company (or in any similar capacity) with respect to this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby and any advice given by any Investor or any of their respective representatives or agents in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby is merely incidental to the Investors’ purchase of the Securities. The Company further represents to each Investor that the Company’s decision to enter into this Agreement has been based solely on the independent evaluation of the transactions contemplated hereby by the Company and its representatives.

5



(k)    Acknowledgment Regarding Investors’ Trading Activity. Anything in this Agreement or elsewhere herein to the contrary notwithstanding (except for Sections 6(a)(iv) and 12 hereof), it is understood and acknowledged by the Company that: (i) none of the Investors has been asked by the Company to agree, nor has any Investor agreed, to desist from purchasing or selling, long and/or short, securities of the Company, or “derivative” securities based on securities issued by the Company or to hold the Securities for any specified term, (ii) past or future open market or other transactions by any Investor, specifically including, without limitation, short sales or “derivative” transactions, before or after the Closing, may negatively impact the market price of the Company’s publicly-traded securities, (iii) any Investor, and counter-parties in “derivative” transactions to which any such Investor is a party, directly or indirectly, may presently have a “short” position in the Common Stock and (iv) each Investor shall not be deemed to have any affiliation with or control over any arm’s length counter-party in any “derivative” transaction. The Company further understands and acknowledges that, except as otherwise provided by applicable law or the policies of the Company applicable to directors, officers and employees of the Company, (y) one or more Investors may engage in hedging activities at various times during the period that the Securities are outstanding, including, without limitation, during the periods that the value of the Underlying Shares deliverable with respect to Securities are being determined, and (z) such hedging activities (if any) could reduce the value of the existing stockholders’ equity interests in the Company at and after the time that the hedging activities are being conducted. The Company acknowledges that such aforementioned hedging activities do not constitute a breach of this Agreement.
6.    Representations and Warranties of the Investors. As of the date hereof and as of the Closing, each of the Investors, severally and not jointly, hereby represents and warrants to and covenants with the Company that:
(a)    General.
(i)    The Investor has all requisite authority to purchase the Securities, enter into this Agreement and to perform all the obligations required to be performed by the Investor hereunder, and such purchase will not contravene any law, rule or regulation binding on the Investor or any investment guideline or restriction applicable to the Investor.
(ii)    The Investor is acquiring the Securities for its own account and is not acquiring the Securities as a nominee or agent or otherwise for any other person.
(iii)    The Investor will comply with all applicable laws and regulations the Investor is required to comply with in connection with the purchase or sale of Securities in effect in any jurisdiction in which the Investor purchases or sells Securities and obtain any consent, approval or permission the Investor is required to obtain in connection with such

6



purchase or sale of Securities under the laws and regulations of any jurisdiction to which the Investor is subject or in which the Investor makes such purchases or sales, and the Company shall have no responsibility therefor.
(iv)    Other than consummating the transactions contemplated hereby, the Investor has not directly or indirectly, nor has any person acting on behalf of or pursuant to any understanding with such Investor, executed any purchases or sales, including short sales, of the securities of the Company during the period commencing as of the time that such Investor first received a term sheet (written or oral) from the Company or any other person representing the Company setting forth the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby and ending immediately prior to the execution hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the case of an Investor that is a multi-managed investment vehicle whereby separate portfolio managers manage separate portions of such Investor’s assets and the portfolio managers have no direct knowledge of the investment decisions made by the portfolio managers managing other portions of such Investor’s assets, the representation set forth above shall only apply with respect to the portion of assets managed by the portfolio manager that made the investment decision to purchase the Securities covered by this Agreement. Other than to other persons party to this Agreement, such Investor has maintained the confidentiality of all disclosures made to it in connection with this transaction (including the existence and terms of this transaction). Notwithstanding the foregoing, for avoidance of doubt, nothing contained herein shall constitute a representation or warranty, or preclude any actions, with respect to the identification of the availability of, or securing of, available shares to borrow in order to effect short sales or similar transactions in the future.
(b)    Information Concerning the Company.
(i)    The Investor understands and accepts that the purchase of the Securities involves various risks. The Investor represents that it is able to bear a complete loss of its investment in the Securities.
(ii)    The Investor confirms that it is not relying on any communication (written or oral) of the Company or any of its affiliates, as investment advice or as a recommendation to purchase the Securities. It is understood that information and explanations related to the terms and conditions of the Securities provided by the Company or any of its affiliates shall not be considered investment advice or a recommendation to purchase the Securities, and that neither the Company nor any of its affiliates is acting or has acted as an advisor to the Investor in deciding to invest in the Securities. The Investor acknowledges that neither the Company nor any of its affiliates has made any representation regarding the proper characterization of the Securities for purposes of determining the Investor’s authority to invest in the Securities.

7



(iii)    The Investor acknowledges that it has had the opportunity to review this Agreement (including all exhibits and schedules hereto) and the Disclosure Package and has been afforded (A) the opportunity to ask such questions as it has deemed necessary of, and to receive answers from, representatives of the Company concerning the terms and conditions of the offering of the Securities and the merits and risks of investing in the Securities; (B) access to information about the Company and its financial condition, results of operations, business, properties, management and prospects sufficient to enable it to evaluate its investment; and (C) the opportunity to obtain such additional information that the Company possesses or can acquire without unreasonable effort or expense that is necessary to make an informed investment decision with respect to the investment.
(iv)    The Investor understands that, unless the Investor notifies the Company in writing to the contrary at or before the Closing, each of the Investor’s representations and warranties contained in this Agreement will be deemed to have been reaffirmed and confirmed as of the Closing, taking into account all information received by the Investor.
(v)    The Investor understands that no federal or state agency has passed upon the merits or risks of an investment in the Securities or made any finding or determination concerning the fairness or advisability of this investment.
(vi)    The Investor is not purchasing the Securities as a result of any advertisement, article, notice or other communication regarding the Securities published in any newspaper, magazine or similar media or broadcast over television or radio or presented at any seminar or any other general solicitation or general advertisement.
(c)    Non-reliance.
(i)    The Investor represents that it is not relying on (and will not at any time rely on) any communication (written or oral) of the Company, as investment advice or as a recommendation to purchase the Securities, it being understood that information and explanations related to the terms and conditions of the Securities shall not be considered investment advice or a recommendation to purchase the Securities.
(ii)    Except as expressly provided herein, the Investor confirms that the Company has not (A) given any guarantee or representation as to the potential success, return, effect or benefit (either legal, regulatory, tax, financial, accounting or otherwise) an of investment in the Securities or (B) made any representation to the Investor regarding the legality of an investment in the Securities under applicable legal investment or similar laws or regulations. In deciding to purchase the Securities, the Investor is not relying on the advice or

8



recommendations of the Company and the Investor has made its own independent decision that the investment in the Securities is suitable and appropriate for the Investor.
(d)    Status of Investor.
(i)    The Investor has such knowledge, sophistication, skill and experience in business, financial and investment matters that the Investor is capable of evaluating the merits and risks of an investment in the Securities, and has so evaluated the merits and risks of such investment. With the assistance of the Investor’s own professional advisors, to the extent that the Investor has deemed appropriate, the Investor has made its own legal, tax, accounting and financial evaluation of the merits and risks of an investment in the Securities and the consequences of this Agreement. The Investor has considered the suitability of the Securities as an investment in light of its own circumstances and financial condition and the Investor is able to bear the risks associated with an investment in the Securities and its authority to invest in the Securities.
(ii)    At the time the Investor was offered the Securities, the Investor was, and as of the date hereof the Investor is, and on the Closing Date, the Investor will be either (A) a “qualified institutional buyer” as defined in Rule 144A(a) under the Securities Act or (B) an “accredited investor” as defined in as defined in Rule 501(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(7), or (a)(8) under the Securities Act, and not required to be registered as a broker-dealer under Section 15 of the Exchange Act. The Investor agrees to furnish any additional information reasonably requested by the Company or any of its affiliates to assure compliance with applicable U.S. federal and State Securities Laws in connection with the purchase and sale of the Securities.
(iii)    The Investor hereby represents that neither it nor any of its Rule 506(d) Related Parties is a “bad actor” within the meaning of Rule 506(d) of the Securities Act. For purposes of this Agreement a “Rule 506(d) Related Party” means a person or entity covered by the “Bad Actor disqualification” provision of Rule 506(d) of the Securities Act.
(e)    Restrictions on Transfer or Sale of Securities.
(i)    The Investor is acquiring the Securities solely for the Investor’s own beneficial account, for investment purposes, and not with a view to, or for resale in connection with, any distribution of the Securities, has no present intention of distributing any of such Securities in violation of the Securities Act or any applicable State Securities Laws and has no direct or indirect arrangement or understandings with any other persons to distribute or regarding the distribution of such Securities in violation of the Securities Act or any applicable State Securities Laws (this representation and warranty not limiting such Investor’s right to sell the Securities pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) or otherwise in compliance with applicable federal law and State Securities Laws). The Investor understands

9



that the Securities have not been registered under the Securities Act or any State Securities Laws by reason of specific exemptions under the provisions thereof which depend in part upon the investment intent of the Investor and of the other representations made by the Investor in this Agreement. The Investor understands that the Company is relying upon the representations and agreements contained in this Agreement for the purpose of determining whether this transaction meets the requirements for such exemptions.
(ii)    The Investor understands that the Securities are “restricted securities” under applicable federal securities laws and that the Securities Act and the rules of the Commission provide in substance that the Investor may dispose of the Securities only pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act or an exemption therefrom such as the exemption and safe harbor provided under Rule 144 of the Securities Act.
(iii)    The Investor agrees that the Investor will not sell, assign, pledge, give, transfer or otherwise dispose of the Securities or any interest therein, or make any offer or attempt to do any of the foregoing, except pursuant to a registration of the Securities under the Securities Act or in a transaction which is exempt from the registration provisions of the Securities Act such as the exemption and safe harbor provided under Rule 144 of the Securities Act; that the certificates representing the Securities will bear a legend making reference to the foregoing restrictions; and that the Company and its affiliates and transfer agent shall not be required to give effect to any purported transfer of such Securities except upon compliance with the foregoing restrictions. The Company acknowledges and agrees that an Investor may from time to time pledge pursuant to a bona fide margin agreement with a registered broker-dealer or grant a security interest in some or all of the Securities to a financial institution that is an “accredited investor” as defined in Rule 501(a) under the Securities Act and who agrees to be bound by the provisions of this Agreement and, if required under the terms of such arrangement, such Purchaser may transfer pledged or secured Securities to the pledgees or secured parties. Such a pledge or transfer would not be subject to approval of the Company and no legal opinion of legal counsel of the pledgee, secured party or pledgor shall be required in connection therewith. Further, no notice shall be required of such pledge.
7.    Conditions to Obligations of the Investor and the Company. The obligations of the Investors to purchase and pay for the Securities and of the Company to sell the Securities are subject to the satisfaction at or prior to the Closing of the following conditions precedent:
(a)    Solely in the case of the Investors:
(i)    The representations and warranties of the Company contained in Section 5 hereof shall be true and correct as of the Closing in all material respects with the same effect as though such representations and warranties had been made as of the Closing.

10



(ii)    No statute, rule, regulation, executive order, decree, ruling or injunction shall have been enacted, entered or promulgated by any court or governmental authority of competent jurisdiction which prohibits the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.
(iii)    Between the date of this Agreement and the Closing Date, there shall not have been a Material Adverse Effect. For purposes of this Agreement, a “Material Adverse Effect” means any event, change, violation, inaccuracy, circumstance or effect that, individually or in the aggregate, has had or would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on, or result in a material adverse change in, as the case may be, the business, operations, properties, condition (financial or otherwise), assets, liabilities or results of operations of the Company, except for any such events, changes, violations, inaccuracies, circumstances or effects resulting from (w) any changes in general economic, regulatory or political conditions, (x) any changes or events generally affecting the industry in which the Company operates, (y) any adverse change or effect that is caused by the announcement of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, or (z) any violations or other matters arising from changes in law or GAAP; unless in any such instance such change or effect described in (w), (x) or (z) impacts the Company in a materially disproportionate manner relative to a preponderance of the other similar entities impacted by such change.
(iv)    The Company shall have delivered or caused to be delivered to each Investor evidence of the filing and acceptance of the Certificate of Designation from the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware.
(b)    Solely in the case of the Company:
(i)    The representations and warranties of the Investors contained in Section 6 hereof shall be true and correct as of the Closing in all material respects with the same effect as though such representations and warranties had been made as of the Closing.
(ii)    No statute, rule, regulation, executive order, decree, ruling or injunction shall have been enacted, entered or promulgated by any court or governmental authority of competent jurisdiction which prohibits the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.
(iii)    The Stockholder Approval shall have been obtained.
8.    Covenants of the Company.
(a)    The Company hereby agrees to use reasonable best efforts (i) to maintain the listing or quotation of the Common Stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market (or such other

11



trading market that the Company applies to have the Common Stock traded on), (ii) as promptly as practicable following the Closing Date, to secure the listing of the Common Shares on such trading market, and (iii) as promptly as practicable following date on which the Stockholder Approval is obtained (the “Stockholder Approval Date”), to secure the listing of all of the Underlying Shares on such trading market.
(b)    The Company shall file a Current Report on Form 8-K and press release disclosing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby. The Company shall, prior to such filing, furnish to the Investors for review a copy of such Form 8-K and press release. Such press release will be issued prior to market open on the business day following the date of execution of this Agreement and the Form-8-K will be filed within the time prescribed by the regulations of the Commission.
(c)    The Company shall use its reasonable best efforts to timely file (or obtain extensions in respect thereof and file within the applicable grace period) all reports required to be filed by the Company after the date hereof pursuant to the Exchange Act. For so long as any Investor holds unregistered Securities, if the Company is not required to file reports pursuant to the Exchange Act, it will prepare and furnish to such Investor and make publicly available in accordance with Rule 144(c) such information as is required for such Investor to sell the Common Shares and the Underlying Shares under Rule 144.
(d)    The Board of Directors of the Company shall use commercially reasonable efforts as soon as possible and in any event not later than the 75th day after the Closing Date for the purpose of obtaining the Stockholder Approval, with the recommendation of the Company’s Board of Directors that the Charter Amendment and the issuance of shares to the Investors be approved, and the Company shall solicit proxies from its stockholders in connection therewith in the same manner as all other management proposals in such proxy statement and, to the extent authorized, all management-appointed proxyholders shall vote their proxies in favor of such proposal.
9.    Registration Rights.
(a)    Shelf Registration.
(i)    At the request of the holders of at least a majority of the Registrable Shares (the “Majority Investors”), the Company shall use commercially reasonable efforts to file no later than 15 business days after the Stockholder Approval Date (the “Filing Date”) a registration statement covering the resale of the Common Shares and the Underlying Shares (the “Registrable Shares”) with the Commission for an offering to be made on a continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415, or if Rule 415 is not available for offers and sales of the Registrable Shares, by such other means of distribution of Registrable Shares as the Majority

12



Investors may reasonably specify (the “Initial Registration Statement”). The Initial Registration Statement shall be on Form S-3 (except if the Company is ineligible to register for resale the Registrable Shares on Form S-3, in which case such registration shall be on another appropriate form).
(ii)    The Company shall use commercially reasonable efforts to effect the registration (including a declaration of effectiveness thereof by the Commission) and applicable qualifications or compliances (including, without limitation, the execution of any required undertaking to file post-effective amendments, appropriate qualifications or exemptions under applicable State Securities Laws and appropriate compliance with applicable securities laws, requirements or regulations) as promptly as practicable after the filing of the Initial Registration Statement, but in any event prior to the date which is 90 days after the Filing Date (the “Effectiveness Date”). The Company shall, within two (2) business days after the Effectiveness Date, file a final prospectus with the Commission as required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act.
(iii)    In the event that all of the Registrable Shares cannot, as a result of the rules and regulations of the Commission, be registered for resale as a secondary offering on a single registration statement, the Company agrees to promptly (i) inform the Investors thereof, (ii) use commercially reasonable efforts to file amendments to the Initial Registration Statement as required by the Commission and/or (iii) withdraw the Initial Registration Statement and use commercially reasonable efforts to file a new registration statement (a “New Registration Statement”), in either case covering the maximum number of Registrable Shares permitted to be registered by the Commission, on Form S-3 or, if the Company is ineligible to register for resale the Registrable Shares on Form S-3, such other form available to register for resale the Registrable Shares as a secondary offering; provided, however, that prior to filing such amendment or New Registration Statement, the Company shall be obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to advocate with the Commission for the registration of all of the Registrable Shares. In the event the Company amends the Initial Registration Statement or files a New Registration Statement, as the case may be, under clauses (ii) or (iii) above, the Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to file with the Commission, as promptly as practicable, one or more registration statements on Form S-3 or, if the Company is ineligible to register for resale the Registrable Shares on Form S-3, such other form available to register for resale those Registrable Shares that were not registered for resale on the Initial Registration Statement, as amended, or the New Registration Statement (the “Remainder Registration Statements” and, collectively with the Initial Registration Statement and the New Registration Statement, the “Registration Statements”).
(iv)    Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, if the Commission limits the number of Registrable Shares permitted to be registered on a particular

13



Registration Statement (and notwithstanding that the Company used diligent efforts to advocate with the Commission for the registration of all or a greater number of Registrable Shares), unless otherwise directed in writing by a Holder as to its Registrable Shares, the number of Registrable Shares to be registered on such Registration Statement will be reduced as follows:
(1)
First, the Company shall reduce or eliminate any securities to be included other than Registrable Shares;
(2)
Second, the Company shall reduce Registrable Shares (applied to the Investors on a pro rata basis based on the total number of unregistered Registrable Shares held by such Investors).
In the event of a cutback hereunder, the Company shall give the Investors at least three (3) business days prior written notice along with the calculations as to such Investor’s allotment.
(b)    All expenses incurred by the Company in complying with Section 9(a) hereof, including, without limitation, all registration, qualification and filing fees, printing expenses, escrow fees, fees and expenses of counsel for the Company, blue sky fees and expenses and the expense of any special audits incident to or required by any such registration (but excluding the fees of legal counsel for any Investor or holder of Registrable Shares) shall be borne by the Company. All selling commissions applicable to the sale of Registrable Shares and all fees and expenses of legal counsel for any Investor or holder of Registrable Shares related to the registration and sale of the Registrable Shares shall be borne by the Investor or holder of Registrable Shares incurring such commissions, fees or expenses.
(c)    In the case of the registration, qualification, exemption or compliance effected by the Company pursuant to this Agreement, the Company shall, upon reasonable request, inform the Investors as to the status of such registration, qualification, exemption and compliance. At its expense the Company shall:
(i)    except for such times as the Company is permitted hereunder to suspend the use of the prospectus forming part of a Registration Statement, use its commercially reasonable efforts to keep such registration, and any qualification, exemption or compliance under State Securities Laws which the Company determines to obtain, continuously effective with respect to the Investors, and to keep the applicable Registration Statement effective until the later of (A) two (2) years from the Closing Date, (B) the date by which all the Registrable Shares may be sold without volume or manner of sale restrictions which may be applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, or (C) the date on which all of the Registrable Shares are sold. The period of time during which the Company is required hereunder to keep a Registration Statement effective is referred to herein as the “Registration Period”;

14



(ii)    advise the Investors within five (5) business days:
(1)
when a Registration Statement or any amendment thereto has been filed with the Commission and when such Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment thereto has become effective;
(2)
of any request by the Commission for amendments or supplements to any Registration Statement or the prospectus included therein or for additional information;
(3)
of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of any Registration Statement or, to the Company’s knowledge, the initiation of any proceedings for such purpose;
(4)
of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Registrable Shares included therein for sale in any jurisdiction or, to the Company’s knowledge, the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; and
(5)
subject to the provisions this Agreement, of the occurrence of any event that requires the making of any changes in any Registration Statement or prospectus so that, as of such date, the statements therein are not misleading and do not omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (in the case of a prospectus, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading;
(iii)    use its commercially reasonable efforts to obtain the withdrawal of any order suspending the effectiveness of any Registration Statement as soon as reasonably practicable;
(iv)    if an Investor so requests in writing, promptly furnish to the Investor, without charge, at least one copy of each Registration Statement and each post-effective amendment thereto, including financial statements and schedules, and, if explicitly requested, all exhibits in the form filed with the Commission;
(v)    during the Registration Period, promptly deliver to each Investor, without charge, as many copies of each prospectus included in a Registration Statement and any amendment or supplement thereto as the Investor may reasonably request in writing; and the

15



Company consents to the use, consistent with the provisions hereof, of the prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto by the Investor of Registrable Shares in connection with the offering and sale of the Registrable Shares covered by a prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto;
(vi)    during the Registration Period, if an Investor so requests in writing, deliver to the Investor, without charge, (i) one copy of the following documents, other than those documents available via the Commission’s EDGAR system: (A) its annual report on Form 10-K (or similar form), (B) its definitive proxy statement with respect to its annual meeting of stockholders, (C) each of its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and (D) a copy of each full Registration Statement (the foregoing, in each case, excluding exhibits); and (ii) if explicitly requested, all exhibits excluded by the parenthetical to the immediately preceding clause (D); provided, that the Company shall have no obligation to provide any document pursuant to this clause that is available on the Commission’s EDGAR system;
(vii)    prior to any public offering of Registrable Shares pursuant to any Registration Statement, promptly take such actions as may be necessary to register or qualify or obtain an exemption for offer and sale under State Securities Laws of such United States jurisdictions as an Investor reasonably request in writing; provided that the Company shall not for any such purpose be required to qualify generally to transact business as a foreign corporation in any jurisdiction where it is not so qualified or to consent to general service of process in any such jurisdiction, and do any and all other acts or things reasonably necessary or advisable to enable the offer and sale in such jurisdictions of the Registrable Shares covered by any such Registration Statement;
(viii)    upon the occurrence of any event contemplated by Section 9(c)(ii)(5) above, except for such times as the Company is permitted hereunder to suspend the use of a prospectus forming part of a Registration Statement, and taking into account the Company’s good faith assessment of any adverse consequences to the Company and its stockholders of the premature disclosure of such event, the Company shall use its commercially reasonable efforts to prepare a post-effective amendment to such Registration Statement or a supplement to the related prospectus, or file any other required document so that, as thereafter delivered to purchasers of the Registrable Shares included therein, such prospectus will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;
(ix)    otherwise use its commercially reasonable efforts to comply in all material respects with all applicable rules and regulations of the Commission which could affect the sale of the Registrable Shares;

16



(x)    use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause all Registrable Shares to be listed on each securities exchange or market, if any, on which equity securities issued by the Company have been listed; and
(xi)    cooperate with any broker-dealer through which an Investor proposes to resell its Registrable Shares in such broker-dealer’s filing with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department pursuant to FINRA Rule 5110, as requested by any such Investor.
(d)    No Investor shall have the right to take any action to restrain, enjoin or otherwise delay any registration pursuant to Section 9(a) hereof as a result of any controversy that may arise with respect to the interpretation or implementation of this Agreement.
(e)    Indemnification.
(i)    To the extent permitted by law, the Company shall indemnify each Investor and each person controlling such Investor within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act, with respect to which any registration that has been effected pursuant to this Agreement, against all claims, losses, damages and liabilities (or action in respect thereof), including any of the foregoing incurred in settlement of any litigation, commenced or threatened (subject to Section 9(e)(iii) below), arising out of or based on any untrue statement (or alleged untrue statement) of a material fact contained in any Registration Statement, prospectus, any amendment or supplement thereof, or other document incident to any registration, qualification or compliance or based on any omission (or alleged omission) to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, in light of the circumstances in which they were made, or any violation by the Company of any rule or regulation promulgated by the Securities Act applicable to the Company and relating to any action or inaction required of the Company in connection with any such registration, qualification or compliance, and will reimburse each Investor and each person controlling such Investor, for reasonable legal and other out-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred in connection with investigating or defending any such claim, loss, damage, liability or action as incurred; provided that the Company will not be liable in any such case to the extent that any untrue statement or omission or allegation thereof is made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by or on behalf of such Investor for use in preparation of any Registration Statement, prospectus, amendment or supplement; provided however, that the Company will not be liable in any such case where the claim, loss, damage or liability arises out of the failure of such Investor to comply with the covenants and agreements contained in this Agreement respecting sales of Registrable Shares, and except that the foregoing indemnity agreement is subject to the condition that, insofar as it relates to any such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in any preliminary prospectus but eliminated or remedied in the amended prospectus on file with the Commission at

17



the time any Registration Statement becomes effective or in an amended prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) which meets the requirements of Section 10(a) of the Securities Act (each, a “Final Prospectus”), such indemnity shall not inure to the benefit of the Investor or any such controlling person, if a copy of a Final Prospectus furnished by the Company to the Investor for delivery was not furnished to the person or entity asserting the loss, liability, claim or damage at or prior to the time such furnishing is required by the Securities Act and a Final Prospectus would have cured the defect giving rise to such loss, liability, claim or damage.
(ii)    Each Investor will, severally and not jointly, indemnify the Company, each of its directors and officers, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act, against all claims, losses, damages and liabilities (or actions in respect thereof), including any of the foregoing incurred in settlement of any litigation, commenced or threatened (subject to Section 9(e)(iii) below), arising out of or based on any untrue statement (or alleged untrue statement) of a material fact contained in any Registration Statement, prospectus, any amendment or supplement thereof, or other document incident to any such registration, or based on any omission (or alleged omission) to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, in light of the circumstances in which they were made, and will reimburse the Company, such directors and officers, and each person controlling the Company for reasonable legal and any other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with investigating or defending any such claim, loss, damage, liability or action as incurred, in each case to the extent, but only to the extent, that such untrue statement or omission or allegation thereof is made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by or on behalf of such Investor for use in preparation of any Registration Statement, prospectus, amendment or supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the maximum liability of the Investor under this section shall be limited to the proceeds received by the Investor from the sale of Registrable Shares.
(iii)    Each party entitled to indemnification under this Section 9(e) (the “Indemnified Party”) shall give notice to the party required to provide indemnification (the “Indemnifying Party”) promptly after such Indemnified Party has actual knowledge of any claim as to which indemnity may be sought, and shall permit the Indemnifying Party (at its expense) to assume the defense of any such claim or any litigation resulting therefrom, provided that counsel for the Indemnifying Party, who shall conduct the defense of such claim or litigation, shall be approved by the Indemnified Party (whose approval shall not unreasonably be withheld, conditioned or delayed), and the Indemnified Party may participate in such defense at such Indemnified Party’s expense, and provided further that the failure of any Indemnified Party to give notice as provided herein shall not relieve the Indemnifying Party of its obligations under this Agreement, unless such failure is materially prejudicial to the Indemnifying Party in

18



defending such claim or litigation. An Indemnifying Party shall not be liable for any settlement of an action or claim effected without its written consent (which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed). No Indemnifying Party, in its defense of any such claim or litigation, shall, except with the consent of each Indemnified Party (which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed), consent to entry of any judgment or enter into any settlement which does not include as an unconditional term thereof the giving by the claimant or plaintiff to such Indemnified Party of a release from all liability in respect to such claim or litigation.
(iv)    If the indemnification provided for in this Section 9(e) is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be unavailable to an Indemnified Party with respect to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense referred to therein, then the Indemnifying Party, in lieu of indemnifying such Indemnified Party thereunder, shall contribute to the amount paid or payable by such Indemnified Party as a result of such loss, liability, claim, damage or expense in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative fault of the Indemnifying Party on the one hand and of the Indemnified Party on the other in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such loss, liability, claim, damage or expense as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. The relative fault of the Indemnifying Party and of the Indemnified Party shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or the omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Indemnifying Party or by the Indemnified Party and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The parties hereto agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 9(e) were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to in the immediately preceding paragraph. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 9(e), no Investor shall be required to contribute pursuant to this Section 9(e), in the aggregate, any amount in excess of the amount by which the net proceeds actually received by such Investor from the sale of the Registrable Shares exceeds the amount of any damages that such Investor has otherwise been required to pay by reason of such untrue or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission.
(f)    Disclosure, Etc.
(i)    Not less than five (5) business days prior to the filing of each Registration Statement, the Company shall furnish to each Investor copies of such Registration Statement and all exhibits being filed therewith, and shall consider in good faith the reasonable comments of such Investor. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, the Company shall not be obligated to provide the Investors advance copies of any universal shelf registration statement registering securities in addition to those required hereunder. Each Investor agrees that, upon

19



receipt of any notice from the Company of the happening of any event requiring the preparation of a supplement or amendment to a prospectus relating to Registrable Shares so that, as thereafter delivered to the Investor, such prospectus shall not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, the Investor will forthwith discontinue disposition of Registrable Shares pursuant to a Registration Statement and prospectus contemplated by Section 9(a) until its receipt of copies of the supplemented or amended prospectus from the Company and, if so directed by the Company, the Investor shall deliver to the Company all copies, other than permanent file copies then in the Investor’s possession, of the prospectus covering such Registrable Shares current at the time of receipt of such notice.
(ii)    Each Investor shall suspend, upon request of the Company, any disposition of Registrable Shares pursuant to any Registration Statement and prospectus contemplated by Section 9(a) during the occurrence or existence of any pending corporate development with respect to the Company that the Board of Directors of the Company believes in good faith may be material and that, in the determination of the Board of Directors of the Company, makes it not in the best interest of the Company to allow continued availability of a Registration Statement or prospectus. The Company shall be entitled to exercise its right under this paragraph to suspend the availability of a Registration Statement and prospectus for a period not to exceed 60 calendar days (which need not be consecutive days) in any 12-month period.
(iii)    Upon the occurrence of any event contemplated by Section 3(d), as promptly as reasonably possible under the circumstances taking into account the Company’s good faith assessment of any adverse consequences to the Company and its stockholders of the premature disclosure of such event, prepare a supplement or amendment, including a post-effective amendment, to a Registration Statement or a supplement to the related prospectus or any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference, and file any other required document so that, as thereafter delivered, neither a Registration Statement nor such prospectus will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Company will use its best efforts to ensure that the use of the prospectus may be resumed as promptly as is practicable. The Company shall be entitled to exercise its right under this Section 9(f) to suspend the availability of a Registration Statement and prospectus for a period not to exceed 60 calendar days (which need not be consecutive days) in any 12-month period.
(iv)    As a condition to the inclusion of its Registrable Shares, the Investor shall furnish to the Company such information regarding the Investor and the distribution proposed by the Investor as the Company may reasonably request in writing,

20



including completing a Registration Statement Questionnaire in the form provided by the Company, or as shall be required in connection with any registration referred to in this Section 9.
(v)    Each Investor hereby covenants with the Company (i) not to make any sale of the Registrable Shares without effectively causing the prospectus delivery requirements under the Securities Act to be satisfied (unless such sale is pursuant to Rule 144).
(vi)    Each Investor agrees not to take any action with respect to any distribution deemed to be made pursuant to a Registration Statement which would constitute a violation of Regulation M under the Exchange Act or any other applicable rule, regulation or law.
(vii)    At the end of the Registration Period, each Investor shall discontinue sales of shares pursuant to any Registration Statement upon receipt of notice from the Company of its intention to remove from registration the shares covered by any such Registration Statement which remain unsold, and the Investor shall notify the Company of the number of shares registered which remain unsold immediately upon receipt of such notice from the Company.
(g)    The rights to cause the Company to register Registrable Shares granted to the Investors by the Company under Section 9(a) may be assigned by an Investor in connection with a transfer by such Investor of all or a portion of its Registrable Shares, provided, however, that the Investor must give the Company at least 10 days prior notice of such transfer for such transfer to be reflected in the Registration Statement or any amendment thereto and that (i) such transfer may otherwise be effected in accordance with applicable securities laws; (ii) such Investor gives prior written notice to the Company at least 10 days prior to the transfer; and (iii) such transferee agrees to comply with the terms and provisions of this Agreement, and such transfer is otherwise in compliance with this Agreement. Except as specifically permitted by this Section 9(g), the rights of an Investor with respect to Registrable Shares as set out herein shall not be transferable to any other person, and any attempted transfer shall cause all rights of such Investor therein to be forfeited.
(h)    The rights of an Investor under any provision of this Section 9 may be waived (either generally or in a particular instance, either retroactively or prospectively and either for a specified period of time or indefinitely) or amended by an instrument in writing signed by such Investor.
10.    Legend. At the Closing, the certificates representing the Preferred Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement, and upon issuance the certificates representing the Underlying Shares, will be imprinted with a legend in substantially the following form:

21



THIS SECURITY HAS NOT BEEN REGISTERED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION OR THE SECURITIES COMMISSION OF ANY STATE IN RELIANCE UPON AN EXEMPTION FROM REGISTRATION UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED (THE “SECURITIES ACT”), AND, ACCORDINGLY, MAY NOT BE OFFERED OR SOLD EXCEPT PURSUANT TO AN EFFECTIVE REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OR PURSUANT TO AN AVAILABLE EXEMPTION FROM, OR IN A TRANSACTION NOT SUBJECT TO, THE REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE SECURITIES ACT AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE STATE SECURITIES LAWS AS EVIDENCED BY A LEGAL OPINION OF COUNSEL TO THE TRANSFEROR TO SUCH EFFECT, THE SUBSTANCE OF WHICH SHALL BE REASONABLY ACCEPTABLE TO THE COMPANY. THIS SECURITY MAY BE PLEDGED IN CONNECTION WITH A BONA FIDE MARGIN ACCOUNT WITH A REGISTERED BROKER-DEALER OR OTHER LOAN WITH A FINANCIAL INSTITUTION THAT IS AN “ACCREDITED INVESTOR” AS DEFINED IN RULE 501(a) UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OR OTHER LOAN SECURED BY SUCH SECURITIES.
provided, that the Company shall (a) cause such legend to be promptly removed once a registration statement covering the resale of any Securities is effective under the Securities Act or if such legend is no longer required under applicable law and (b) in connection with any sale under Rule 144, promptly (and in any event within five (5) business days after receipt by the Company of a request therefor accompanied by all reasonably required documentation) deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Investors new certificate(s) representing such Securities that are free from all restrictive and other legends or, at the request of an Investor, via DWAC transfer to such Investor’s account.
11.    Replacement of Securities. If any certificate or instrument evidencing any Securities is mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, the Company shall issue or cause to be issued in exchange and substitution for and upon cancellation thereof (in the case of mutilation), or in lieu of and substitution therefor, a new certificate or instrument, but only upon receipt of evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Company of such loss, theft or destruction. The applicant for a new certificate or instrument under such circumstances shall also pay any reasonable third-party costs (including customary indemnity) associated with the issuance of such replacement Securities.
12.    Certain Transactions. Each Investor, severally and not jointly, covenants that neither it, nor any affiliate acting on its behalf or pursuant to any understanding with it will execute any purchases or sales, including short sales, of any of the Company’s securities during the period commencing with the execution of this Agreement and ending at such time that the transactions contemplated by this Agreement are first publicly announced pursuant to the initial press release as described in Section 8(b).

22



13.    Expenses. The parties hereto shall pay their own costs and expenses in connection herewith; provided that, subject to the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby, the Company shall reimburse the Investors upon demand for up to $50,000 of reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the Investors, including without limitation reimbursement of reasonable attorneys’ fees, in connection with the negotiation and execution of this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby.
14.    Waiver, Amendment. Neither this Agreement nor any provisions hereof shall be amended, waived, discharged or terminated except by an instrument in writing signed, in the case of an amendment, by the Company and Investors holding not less than a majority of the Registrable Shares affected by such amendment or, in the case of a waiver, discharge or termination, by the party against whom such waiver, discharge or termination is sought.
15.    Assignability. This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties and their successors and permitted assigns. The Company may not assign this Agreement or any rights or obligations hereunder without the prior written consent of the Investors holding not less than a majority of the Registrable Shares. Any Investor may assign any or all of its rights under this Agreement to any person to whom such Investor assigns or transfers any Securities; provided that such transferee agrees in writing to be bound, with respect to the transferred Securities, by the provisions of this Agreement that apply to the “Investors.” Additionally, at any time prior to the Closing, any Investor may allocate any portion of his, her or its Units being purchased hereunder to a third party reasonably acceptable to the Company (an “Additional Investor”), provided that such Additional Investor executes a counterpart signature page to this Agreement becoming an Investor hereunder in all respects, including without limitation making the representations and warranties in Section 6 of this Agreement. In the event an Additional Investor becomes a party to this Agreement, Schedule I to this Agreement shall be updated automatically without the need for an amendment to this Agreement.
16.    Waiver of Jury Trial. EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE INVESTORS IRREVOCABLY WAIVES ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY WITH RESPECT TO ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED BY THIS AGREEMENT.
17.    Submission to Jurisdiction. With respect to any suit, action or proceeding relating to any offers, purchases or sales of the Securities by the Investors (“Proceedings”), each of the Company and the Investors irrevocably submits to the jurisdiction of the federal or state courts located in the State of Delaware, which submission shall be exclusive unless none of such courts has lawful jurisdiction over such Proceedings.

23



18.    Governing Law. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Delaware.
19.    Section and Other Headings. The section and other headings contained in this Agreement are for reference purposes only and shall not affect the meaning or interpretation of this Agreement.
20.    Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which when so executed and delivered shall be deemed to be an original and all of which together shall be deemed to be one and the same agreement.
21.    Notices. All notices and other communications provided for herein shall be in writing and shall be deemed to have been duly given if delivered personally or sent by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid to the following addresses (or such other address as either party shall have specified by notice in writing to the other):
If to the Company:
Yield10 Bioscience, Inc.
19 Presidential Way
Woburn, Massachusetts 01801
Attention: Oliver Peoples, CEO
 
With a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:
 
Megan N. Gates, Esq.
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.
One Financial Center
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
Attention: Megan N. Gates
Email: mgates@mintz.com
 
 
If to any Investor:
The address specified in Schedule I for notices to such Investor

22.    Binding Effect. The provisions of this Agreement shall be binding upon and accrue to the benefit of the parties hereto and their respective heirs, legal representatives, successors and assigns.
23.    Survival. All representations, warranties and covenants contained in this Agreement shall survive the Closing.
24.    Notification of Changes. Each of the Company and the Investors hereby covenants and agrees to notify the other upon the occurrence of any event prior to the Closing which would cause any representation, warranty, or covenant of such party contained in this Agreement to be false or incorrect.

24



25.    Severability. If any term or provision of this Agreement is invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any jurisdiction, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other term or provision of this Agreement or invalidate or render unenforceable such term or provision in any other jurisdiction.
26.    Independent Nature of Investors’ Obligations and Rights. The obligations of each Investor under this Agreement are several and not joint with the obligations of any other Investor, and no Investor shall be responsible in any way for the performance or non-performance of the obligations of any other Investor under this Agreement. Nothing contained herein, and no action taken by any Investor pursuant hereto, shall be deemed to constitute the Investors as a partnership, an association, a joint venture or any other kind of entity, or create a presumption that the Investors are in any way acting in concert or as a group with respect to such obligations or the transactions contemplated hereby. Each Investor shall be entitled to independently protect and enforce its rights, including, without limitation, the rights arising out of this Agreement, and it shall not be necessary for any other Investor to be joined as an additional party in any proceeding for such purpose. Each Investor has had the opportunity to be represented by its own separate legal counsel in its review and negotiation of this Agreement (including the exhibits and schedules hereto). Except as expressly contemplated by this Agreement, the Company has elected to provide all Investors with the same terms and Agreement for the convenience of the Company and not because it was required or requested to do so by any of the Investors.


25



IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly executed by their respective authorized signatories as of the date first indicated above.
 
YIELD10 BIOSCIENCE, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Oliver P. Peoples
 
Name:
Oliver P. Peoples
 
Title:
President and CEO






INVESTORS:
JACK W. SCHULER
/s/ Jack W. Schuler    
Name: Jack W. Schuler
RENATE SCHULER
/s/ Renate Schuler    
Name: Renate Schuler
SCHULER FAMILY FOUNDATION
By:    /s/ Jack W. Schuler    
Name:    Jack W. Schuler
Title:    President
SCHULER GRANDCHILDREN LLC
By:    /s/ George Schuler    
Name:    George Schuler
Title:    Manager
JS GRANDCHILDREN TRUST
By:    /s/ Tino Schuler    
Name:    Tino Schuler
Title:    Co-Trustee
SCHULER DESCENDANTS TRUST
By:    /s/ Tino Schuler    
Name:    Tino Schuler
Title:    Co-Trustee
TINO HANS SCHULER TRUST
By:    /s/ Tino Schuler    
Name:    Tino Schuler
Title:    Trustee
TANYA EVA SCHULER TRUST
By:    /s/ George Schuler    
Name:    George Schuler





Title:    Trustee
THERESE HEIDI SCHULER TRUST
By:    /s/ George Schuler    
Name:    George Schuler
Title:    Trustee






SCHEDULE I


Investor
 

Number of
Units
 

Price per
Unit
 
Aggregate
Purchase
Price
Jack W. Schuler
 
3,155
 
$1,000.00
 

$3,155,000.00

Tino Hans Schuler Trust
 
800
 
$1,000.00
 

$800,000.00

Tanya Eva Schuler Trust
 
800
 
$1,000.00
 

$800,000.00

Therese Heidi Schuler Trust
 
695
 
$1,000.00
 

$695,000.00

Schuler Grandchildren LLC
 
100
 
$1,000.00
 

$100,000.00

JS Grandchildren Trust
 
100
 
$1,000.00
 

$100,000.00

Schuler Descendants Trust
 
100
 
$1,000.00
 

$100,000.00

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 






Exhibit A
Form of Certificate of Designation


Exhibit
Exhibit 99.1


http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=13213434&doc=8




Yield10 Bioscience Announces Closing of $11.5 Million Equity Offering and Full Exercise of Over-allotment Option

WOBURN, Mass., November 19, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Yield10 Bioscience, Inc. (NASDAQ:YTEN) an agricultural bioscience company which uses its “Trait Factory” to develop high value seed traits for the agriculture and food industries, announced today the closing of an equity offering, which consisted of an underwritten public offering of units and a private placement of units for gross proceeds of $11.5 million, which includes the full exercise of the underwriter's over-allotment option to purchase additional shares and warrants, prior to deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by Yield10 Bioscience. Both existing investors, including 40.1% shareholder Jack W. Schuler, and new institutional investors participated in the offering.

Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc., a subsidiary of Ladenburg Thalmann Financial Services Inc. (NYSE MKT:LTS), is sole book-running manager and placement agent in connection with the public offering and the private placement.

The securities were offered pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-233683), which was declared effective by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on November 14, 2019.
 
This press release does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy, nor will there be any sales of these securities in any jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under the securities laws of such jurisdiction. A final prospectus relating to the public offering was filed by Yield10 Bioscience with the SEC. Copies of the final prospectus can be obtained at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or from Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc., Prospectus Department, 277 Park Avenue, 26th Floor, New York, New York 10172, by calling (212) 409-2000.

About Yield10
Yield10 Bioscience, Inc. is an agricultural bioscience company which uses its “Trait Factory” to develop high value seed traits for the agriculture and food industries to achieve step-change improvements in crop yield to enhance global food security and develop specialty crop products.
Yield10 has an extensive track record of innovation based around optimizing the flow of carbon in living systems. Yield10 is leveraging its “GRAIN” technology platform and unique knowledge base to design precise alterations to gene activity and the flow of carbon in plants to produce higher yields with lower inputs of land, water or fertilizer. Yield10 is advancing several yield traits it has developed in crops such as canola, soybean, rice, wheat and corn. Yield10 is headquartered in Woburn, MA and has an Oilseeds Center of Excellence in Saskatoon, Canada.






For more information about the Company, please visit www.yield10bio.com. (YTEN-G)

Contacts:
Yield10 Bioscience:
Lynne H. Brum, (617) 682-4693, LBrum@yield10bio.com

Investor Relations:
Bret Shapiro, (516) 222-2560, brets@coreir.com
Managing Director, CORE IR

Media Inquiries:
Eric Fischgrund, eric@fischtankpr.com
FischTank Marketing and PR